The
Blue
Book

 

 

Health, safety and environmentalresponsibilities within installation engineering


 

 


Indispensable in any toolbox

How is it possible to work in a safe, healthy and environmentally sound manner within the installation industry? This Blue Book by UNETO-VNI will provide an answer that is based on practice. This book contains an overview of legal arrangements, the Health and Safety Catalogue for the installation industry and the accompanying rights and obligations of employers and employees.

The regulations are supplemented with practical information on hazard symbols, warning signs and personal safety equipment as well as on working under certain conditions, such as working at heights, working with hazardous substances and electromagnetic radiation.

In addition, the Blue Book contains risk analyses for a large range of installation engineering activities. These will help to limit the hazards in specific work situations.

This fifth edition of the book was made in close cooperation with Health and Safety specialists of installation companies. In comparison to the previous edition, the book has been supplemented with current legislation and regulations and a number of new topics.

The Blue Book is practical, easy to use and complete. For employers it is useful within the framework of safety check lists for contractors (SCC) and toolbox meetings. For technicians it is a vital component of the tool box!

Titia Siertsema

Chairwoman UNETO-VNI

Guide

The Blue Book was written for employees of installation companies. It describes the major regulations in the field of safety, health and the environment. These regulations were derived from legal and social standards. They focus on the activities within the installation industry and serve as internal regulations, also in relation to SCC.

In the first chapter you will find general rules for working in a healthy, safe and environmentally sound (HSE) manner. The various types of workplaces in the different sectors of the installation industry are also described. The second chapter contains the (legal) regulations concerning health, safety and environmental responsibilities.

Chapter three contains major background information and practical tips that may help you to work in accordance with the HSE principles in any situation. Based on practical employee experiences, chapter four will explain the specific risks of different work situations, work environments and activities.

Chapter five contains the task risk analyses (TRAs) for the most common work activities and chapter six contains the TRAs for the most common work environments. For each risk you will be able to use clear tables to map out the severity of the risk and determine the measures to be taken.

Contents


Chapter 1 - Working safely within installation engineering

1.1 What do we mean by working in accordance with HSE requirements?

1.2 General HSE rules

1.3 Transport from and to your work

1.4 Working at a project

1.5 Workplace introduction

1.6 Workplace meeting and toolbox meeting

1.7 Last Minute Risk Analysis (LMRA)

1.8 Workplace inspections

1.9 Working at third parties


Chapter 2 - Working Conditions and environmental legislation

2.1 Points of departure of the Working Conditions Act (Arbowet)

2.2 Environmental legislation

2.3 European directives

2.4 Mining regulations and safety regulations

2.5 Standards

2.6 HSE Check List for Contractors (SCC)

2.7 HSE Check List for employment agencies (SCEA)

2.8 HSE Check List for Principals Clients (SCP)

2.9 OHSAS 18001


Chapter 3 - General information on health, safety and the environment at work

3.1 Health and safety signs

3.2 Order and neatness at the workplace

3.3 Quality assurance at the workplace

3.4 Hygiene on the workplace

3.5 Environmental hygiene at the workplace

3.6 Physical strain: posture and movement

3.7 Personal protective equipment (PPE)

3.7.1 Approach and measures at source

3.7.2 Protective clothes

3.7.3 Head protection

3.7.4 Eye protection

3.7.5 Hearing protection

3.7.6 Foot protection

3.7.7 Hand protection

3.7.8 Respiratory protection

3.8 Calamity prevention and company emergency response

3.9 Industrial accidents

3.10 Life-saving actions

3.11 Fire and fire-fighting


Chapter 4 - Dealing responsibly with risks at work

4.1 Working with monitors

4.2 Working with approved tools

4.3 Working with electric hand tools

4.4 Working at heights

4.5 The transportation of materials

4.6 Working on electrical installations

4.7 Working with hazardous substances

4.8 Legionella on the workplace

4.9 Hazardous fibres on the workplace

4.10 Working safely with refrigerants

4.11 The hazards of quartz dust

4.12 Gas or dust explosion hazard

4.13 How to deal with harmful noise

4.14 Ionising and non-ionising radiation

4.15 Electromagnetic fields of antennae

4.16 Welding and soldering


Chapter 5 - Task Risk Analyses (TRAs): the work

5.1 Working safely when testing, trialling, implementing and setting a mechanical and/or electrical installation

5.2 Working safely when assembling and/or compiling mechanical or electrical installation components

5.3 Working safely when assembling, compiling, disassembling, demolishing a mechanical or electrical installation

5.4 Working safely at a transformer and/or electric motor

5.5 Working safely when assembling, disassembling and/ or demolishing electrical cabling

5.6 Working safely when assembling, disassembling and demolishing air ducts, cable gutters and/or plating

5.7 Working safely when disassembling and demolishing piping

5.8 Working safely when working with cooling systems

5.9 Working safely when pressurising piping

5.10 Working safely with (environmentally) hazardous substances

5.11 Working safely when pouring a cable sleeve

5.12 Working safely with ionisation fire alarms

5.13 Working safely with laser light

5.14 Working safely when transporting material by car or truck

5.15 Working safely when loading and unloading materials

5.16 Working safely when hoisting heavy loads

5.17 Working safely with electrical and mechanical (hand) tools

5.18 Working safely with permanently installed machines

5.19 Working safely with electric saws

5.20 Working safely during grinding activities

5.21 Working safely during drilling activities

5.22 Working safely when mechanically cutting or bending piping

5.23 Working safely during gas welding or burning

5.24 Working safely during electric welding

5.25 Working safely during soldering

5.26 Working safely when hoisting cabinets and boards

5.27 Working safely when loading and unloading cabinets and boards

5.28 Working safely when placing/moving cabinets and boards

5.29 Working safely when placing/moving tools and materials

5.30 Working safely when (re-)connecting electric cables

5.31 Working safely when replacing air conditioning filters


Chapter 6 - Task Risk Analysis (TRAs): the surroundings

6.1 Working safely on your own

6.2 Working safely in a public building during service and maintenance

6.3 Working safely on locations where drug use has to be taken into consideration

6.4 Working safely along or on public roads

6.5 Working safely during the shell construction stage

6.6 Working safely during the construction stage

6.7 Working safely during the final construction stage

6.8 Working safely in the vicinity of GSM antennae

6.9 Working safely in an enclosed space

6.10 Working safely in narrow spaces (crawl spaces, cellars and shafts)

6.11 Working safely during renovation work

6.12 Working safely in a sewer system

6.13 Working safely on a site with fire and explosion hazard

6.14 Working safely during excavation work and when working at public utility cables and pipelines (contaminated soil, encountered objects, explosives or munition)

6.15 Working safely on flat roofs

6.16 Working safely on sloping roofs

6.17 Working safely at heights using a ladder (step ladder)

6.18 Working safely at heights using a mobile scaffold

6.19 Working safely at heights using an elevating work platform

6.20 Working safely in wells and trenches

6.21 Working safely along waterways and at bridges

6.22 Working safely under abnormal weather conditions

6.23 Working safely along railways

6.24 Working safely in the vicinity of ventilation discharge openings

1. Working safely within installation engineering

Whatever work you are doing, there will always be some form of risk. This does not only depend on the type of work, but also on the person performing the work and his attitude towards safety. What one person does not consider a risk, may be a major hazard to someone else. Consider, for instance, working on a mobile scaffold. Some people do not consider this as hazardous, while people suffering from vertigo will experience this type of work as very high-risk.

Whether knowingly or not, everybody takes risks regularly. At home, in traffic, on the sports field, but also during work. Some risks are acceptable, others not. From practice we know that risks that are taken unknowingly are often the cause of accidents.
Usually you are quite familiar with the risks within your own discipline. Risks outside your own discipline, when working in an unfamiliar environment or using new equipment and machines, you are usually not familiar with. That is why it is so important under such conditions that you first check what the possible risks are and which safety measures should be taken. In the eyes of the employer it is unacceptable to take risks during work that could lead to personal accidents and damage to health or the environment.

Working in accordance with the HSE requirements: working in a healthy, safe and environmentally sound manner

1.1 What do we mean by working in accordance with HSE requirements?

A sensible person keeps his wits about him and keeps his life and limbs whole. Therefore, you should check in advance what risks are involved with the work. This knowledge will allow you to take the correct measures. In this way, the probability of an accident will be kept as low as possible. Some measures seem troublesome and unnecessary. Still, a lot of consideration went into these measures. If you do not take them, you will run a risk.

Working in accordance with HSE requirements means that you knowingly take acceptable risks

In this book you will find instructions on how to deal consciously with risks during work. If you observe them, you will automatically provide healthy, safe and environmentally sound working conditions. If you have any doubts or questions, please discuss them with the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).

1.2 General HSE rules

Working in a healthy, safe and environmentally sound manner is also determined by our behaviour. Here are a few general rules:
  • As an employee you have your own responsibility concerning a healthy, safe and environmentally sound performance of your work. In addition, you are also responsible for others who must work in accordance with the HSE requirements.
  • If you encounter a hazardous situation or working method, you should look - if possible - for a (temporary) solution for the hazardous situation. Then, immediately report the situation to your direct manager. He or she will be able to take fitting measures.
  • Point out unsafe behaviour to colleagues.
  • Make sure you know the escape routes in any work situation.
  • Make sure you are familiar with possible alarm signals in case of calamities in any work situation.
  • Do not remove any safeguards and enclosures: not even temporarily.

Internal HSE regulations of the company

Various companies have drawn up their own regulations for health, safety and the environment. Sometimes these regulations go further than the legal requirements, or they are a further interpretation of the legal requirements. An example of this is that you may not access the company's site without wearing a safety helmet and safety shoes. The company's internal HSE regulations are binding in that case. It is the employer's duty to make sure that everyone is familiar with the regulations. Make sure you are familiar with your own company's HSE regulations.

HSE regulations from the client

Clients often have their own HSE regulations as well. It is possible that these regulations deviate from your company's internal regulations. In that case, the client and employer will have to establish the regulations in close consultation. If the regulations from the client are less strict than your company's internal regulations, work will have to be performed in accordance with your company's internal regulations. If you are not familiar with the HSE regulations on your work location, please contact your manager.

In Section 1.9 contains an explanation of the various types of work locations.

Work permits

Sometimes work may only be performed after it has been approved by a responsible official by means of a work permit. A work permit will be issued once agreements have been made concerning HSE measures. Such as switching off or disconnecting machines or pipes or using personal protective equipment. Your immediate manager should discuss the HSE measures with you before the work starts. If this does not take place, ask what the agreements are yourself.

Identity document

Each employee must be able to identify himself if asked by the client or another competent authority, such as the police or the Social Affairs and Employment Inspectorate. So do make sure you always carry a valid identity document (driver's licence, passport, identity card or Dutch aliens document) with you.

Safety passport

Some clients only provide access to their company site to people who have the safety passport (Personal Safety Logbook). With the safety passport you will be able to prove that you have the required HSE qualifications.

The following can be recorded in the safety passport:

  • the name of your employer;
  • your personal data;
  • the safety course and safety specific courses attended by you;
  • the professional qualifications obtained by you as well as other proof of expertise;
  • medical examinations and (re-)vaccination.

The safety passport is provided to you by your employer and remains valid indefinitely, but it is your responsibility to keep it up to date. Your employer will fill in your safety passport on the basis of the data in your (personnel) file. These data come from valid documents, such as your passport. So make sure that changes or annotations in your passport are also recorded in your (personnel) file.

Caution:
+ The safety document is not an identity document and is not automatically a valid pass for accessing a client's site.
+ Inappropriate use of the safety passport may lead to exclusion of your company.
+ Immediately report loss of the safety passport to your employer.

Never heard of a roof rack?

1.3 Transport from and to your work

When driving a car, you are not only responsible for your own safety, but also of that of others. Often colleagues are travelling to work together in a private car, company car or van. If you take colleagues in your car regularly, do keep an eye on the level of maintenance. Is your car regularly serviced? Are the tyres in order and are they at the right tension? Are you insured for transporting passengers?

Do be aware of the fact that as a driver of a company car, people in the street or in traffic will consider you as a representative of the company that you work for. Your driving behaviour therefore reflects on your company's image. Based on the following tips you will know what you need to consider:

  • Take your time to adjust your seat correctly. Do not forget the settings that you have been taught during driving lessons.
  • You should preferably not make phone calls while driving. If you do have to use the phone while driving, always use a hands free version. If you do not, this may result in a hefty fine.
  • Observe the traffic regulations. Driving too fast, tailgating or reckless overtaking will save you hardly any time and will only result in irritation, hazardous situations and a higher petrol consumption.
  • Make sure that you always have your vehicle registration documents and the correct driver's licence with you. For a trailer (empty weight + load) of less than 750 kg, driver's licence B will suffice. If the trailer is heavier, depending on the weight of the car, a B/E driver's licence is required. If the trailer is loaded, make sure the load is transported safely. Loaded open trailers must be provided with a trailer net or load net.
  • Be a good colleague. Meet colleagues in a clean car. Preferably do not smoke in your car, as each employee is legally entitled to a smoke free (work) place. If you do want to smoke in your car, you are only allowed to do so if you are certain that it is allowed. Put dirty work clothes and shoes in a plastic bag and close it with a knot.
  • Know what you are transporting. Some substances may pose a hazard during transport. In the case of flammable substances you are not allowed to smoke and it is important to provide proper ventilation. Make sure gas cylinders cannot fall over. The safety data sheet of a substance will provide you with the required information.
  • Only take with you what is absolutely necessary. The larger the volume of cargo, the greater the risks. Strict legal requirements are imposed for the transportation of substances that exceed the normal work stocks.
  • Make sure materials and tools are loaded and packaged correctly. Heavier materials should be placed at the bottom. Prevent cargo from getting loose or sliding in case you have to brake suddenly.
  • Provide a good 'warming-up'. When getting out of the car, do not immediately start with the heaviest work, but gradually increase the work load. Injuries are often the result of poor 'warming-up'.

1.4 Working at a project

Before the daily work starts at a project, everyone should be aware of the possible risks in relation to health, safety and the environment. That is why at the start of the work day your should briefly discuss what the work contains and what the HSE aspects are. During the meeting you will also discuss how the (special) tools are used safely, which safety provisions (enclosures, warning signs and safety locks) are used and - if necessary - which personal protective equipment should be used. A major part of this information is provided by the person who is in charge of the work place. But it is also easy to consult the following sources of information yourself:

  • The Blue Book contains a lot of instructions on how to deal with the risks within the discipline.
  • The health and safety plan or the project plan - usually only drawn up for larger projects and projects with major risks - contains a description of the project's specific risks, the HSE measures and the cooperation between all parties.
  • Symbols (hazard symbols) on the label and product data sheets provide information on health and safety when using hazardous substances.
  • Safety signs on the work place are a simple way of warning for a particular hazard and indicate which rules of behaviour should be observed.
  • User manuals, e.g. for tools and materials, often contain information on HSE responsibilities.

Are you not sure?

If you have questions, ask your immediate manager first. He or she is also the person you can go to if you think that situations or activities are unsafe. If you are unable to report these complaints to him or her, please contact the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) of the company. He or she will then consult the work place management and, if necessary, the client to see how the situation can be improved.

1.5 Workplace introduction

When you arrive at the workplace for the first time, you will get a workplace introduction. Only then you will start your work. The workplace introduction consists of a discussion of the rules that apply to the project. Sometimes the client provides these instructions at the gate. It is recorded who was present at the workplace instruction.

In many projects, when cooperating with other employers, the HSE regulations that apply on site are recorded in a health and safety plan. In this plan you will find all HSE risks that are specific for this project as well as the measures to be taken. It also describes how HSE rules are mutually adapted. This serves to prevent a colleague from a different employer from endangering you with his activities. Always ask for this plan.

During the workplace introduction the following topics are usually discussed:

  • Access control. Many companies have a sign in and sign out arrangement: this is usually arranged by means of cards.
  • Traffic regulations. On the work site you must sometimes take into account a maximum speed and deviating traffic regulations.
  • Specific high-risk situations and work activities. Prior to starting the work, ask for the valid task risk analysis and be critical in relation to the management measures.
  • Safe use of tools and equipment. Are you familiar with the user instructions and do you know which measures have to be taken for the benefit of a safe and healthy use?
  • Personal protective equipment that should always be used (primary PPE). Perhaps it is good to know what the sanctions will be for you or your company if this PPE is not used.
  • Specific PPE. Where can they be found and when and how should you use and maintain them?
  • Work clothes. Should you wear standard and/or special work clothes?
  • Alarm and emergency situations. You must be familiar with emergency numbers and emergency signals. You must also know what to do in case of calamities, such as an accident or fire. In addition, you must know how the company response plan has been arranged and where you can find the company emergency response workers.
  • Reports of hazardous situations and accidents. It is important that you know how you can report hazardous situations and accidents and to whom.
  • Work permit system, if applicable.
  • Work and rest times.
  • Prohibitions and obligations at the workplace.
  • Environmental regulations. You should know, amongst other things, where you can leave waste.

1.6 Workplace meeting and toolbox meeting

If several employers are performing work on a site, they should hold consultations - as a fixed agenda item in their work meeting - concerning HSE aspects. They do this with the intention to increase the safety, health and well-being of employees and to prevent damage to the environment. On the work floor the immediate manager will discuss the performance of the work with the performing employees as well as the accompanying HSE aspects. This consultation is also referred to as a 'toolbox meeting'. Often you will discuss a theme, the HSE aspects of the work to be performed, the result of a workplace investigation, or you will consider what you can learn from an incident that took place during work.
The information in this book is a good way to help you prepare the workplace meeting or toolbox meeting.

Taking time for the benefit of safety.

1.7 Last Minute Risk Analysis (LMRA)

An LMRA is a short general risk assessment intended to establish hazards at your own workplace as well as exclude hazardous circumstances that could lead to incidents. An LMRA takes approximately 1 to 3 minutes and is executed by the person who will actually be performing the work. If an employee performs high-risk work or performs work in a high-risk environment, he will have to perform an LMRA. The LMRA is obligatory for employees working for an SCC (Safety Check list for Contractors) certified company and is recommended to employees of non-certified companies. LMRA in four steps:
1. Do I know exactly what my assignment/task entails?
2. What else do I think can go wrong and what hazards do I see myself?
3. What should be done to take away the hazard?
4. Take the measures that will make sure that you can work safely.

Practical completion of LMRA

Step 1: Do I know exactly what my assignment/task entails?

Ask yourself the following questions:

  • Have I been given a workplace instruction that dealt with the risks of my work activities?
  • What information is important before I start working?
  • Has it been made clear what work has to be performed?
  • Do I have know-how concerning this work?
  • Has it been reported to me what the hazards are for the assignment/task?
  • Have I been provided with additional information from my manager?
Step 2: What else do I think can go wrong and what hazards do I see myself?

You should recognise hazards yourself and ask yourself what risks the work involves and what could happen to you. So, assess the risks and identify potential hazards, even if all measures have already been taken. The following questions will help you to do this:

  • Is there a hazard of tripping or falling in the walking and working zone?
  • Is the lighting sufficient?
  • Are there electricity hazards on the work floor?
  • Does the work or the surrounding area pose explosion hazards?
  • Do I have the correct tools at my disposal?
  • Are my tools in a correct condition and have they been approved?
  • Is communication with my colleagues necessary, and is it possible?
  • Are extinguishing agents available and within reach, and do I know how to use them?
  • Are the escape routes available and easy to reach?
  • Do I have the correct and necessary personal protective equipment at my disposal?
  • Is the room where I have to perform my work well ventilated? Be cautious in the case of enclosed spaces!
  • Have the required checks and possible tests been performed and has the room been released?
  • Has the required equipment been made safe correctly?
  • Are there other people working near my activities and do their activities pose (additional) risks for me?
Step 3: What should be done to take away the hazard?

After identifying all risks and hazards you must take the correct control measures and/or precautions in order to avoid those risks and prevent those hazards. If materials, equipment or personal safety equipment is made available for that purpose, the correct (additional) information and training should also be provided. Only once all these measures have been taken, you will be able to perform your work well prepared and in a safe work environment.

Step 4: Take the measures that will make sure that you can work safely.

As an employee you must make sure yourself that you are able to perform the work safely. For this purpose, you will have to take the necessary actions yourself. For instance, you will have to place warning cones or use and/or park moving equipment correctly. In case of doubt and/or questions, immediately contact your manager.

Caution:
Are there possible risks or hazards at your workplace? Do not start the work if you have doubts or have been given no positive answer or insufficient information! In that case, consult your manager.

1.8 Workplace inspections

The immediate manager will regularly inspect the workplace to see what HSE risks there are. After all, he or she is the first responsible person concerning health, safety and the environment. Based on the workplace inspection he or she will assess whether measures are required. In case of an inspection, the following is considered:

  • high-risk tasks;
  • observance of rules and regulations;
  • the use of personal protective equipment (PPE);
  • order and neatness at the workplace;
  • possible hazardous situations and actions;
  • the way in which hazardous or environmentally harmful substances are used;
  • the presence and the accessibility of sufficient and proper life-saving equipment: e.g. first aid equipment and a fire extinguisher;
  • the accessibility of escape routes and whether they are clearly indicated;
  • the condition of tools, materials and equipment.

It would be useful to use a check list during the workplace inspection. In order to compile such an inspection list, the employer or the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) could gather information from the company's working conditions service.
It is recommended that employers and immediate managers make clear agreements concerning:

  • how often inspection takes place;
  • who performs the inspection;
  • how the information gathered is passed on to the rest of the organisation;
  • how bottlenecks are solved.

1.9 Working at third parties

You are never fully in control when it comes to working in a healthy, safe and environmentally sound manner. If you work with colleagues, they will also have an impact on the work situation. Usually, personnel from other employers are working at the same time. A project is completed in cooperation. Often, each company has its own vision when it comes to working in accordance with HSE regulations. If the work takes place on the site of a client, you sometimes also have to deal with the house rules of this client.

Working safely through cooperation and consultation

It is possible that someone - without realising - creates a hazardous situation for employees from a different company. For instance, a switch box containing live components is open, or a floor hatch to an underground crawl space has been removed. Such hazards can only be prevented by means of good consultation. That is why it is necessary that the managers of the various companies exchange information concerning the work, the tools to be used, the technology used and the planning. Together they will make agreements that are usually recorded in a HSE project plan, for instance.

Working safely within the utility

In (utility) construction, various contractors are often involved with a project. Sometimes they have different HSE regulations. Here, consultation will also provide a safe and healthy workplace. Typical for construction is that the workplace changes as the work progresses. First the foundation is poured, after which the carcass is built, followed by the finish and furnishing of the building. The HSE measures to be applied are also of a temporary nature.

Commonly encountered safety risks in (utility) construction are:
  • falling from heights
  • bumping and tripping
  • falling objects.

Commonly found health risks are:

  • physical strain (lifting, unfavourable working posture)
  • noise
  • dust
  • weather conditions (cold, heat, wind, etc.).

Otherwise, the risks depend on the profession. An electrician, for instance, should watch out for electrocution.

At the start of the project, in order to prevent risks, it is determined which measures have to be taken per construction stage. The employer will then be able to provide the provisions in time. Other people have access to the building site as well. You could think of employees from other companies and playing children (after working hours). For that reason, it is important that the workplace is left behind in a safe condition after work and during breaks. For instance, make sure that machines are disconnected from the power supply, so that colleagues - or children after working hours! - are not able to start them by accident.

Cooperating safely in housing construction

The work situation in housing construction has strong similarities with (utility) building. In housing construction, the 'product' will be completed by employees from different companies. Commonly found safety and health risks are identical to those within (utility) building. Here, the safety measures are usually temporary as well and may change per day.

In the case of renovation work in housing construction, it is possible to encounter asbestos and this will create an additional risk. In the past asbestos was used as insulation material, e.g. in central heating boilers. It is very important that the employer identifies these risks before the work starts. Then, he will have to make agreements concerning HSE measures and coordinate the activities with the other building partners.

Similar to utility building, it is important to leave the workplace behind in a safe condition during breaks and after working hours.

Safe cooperation within the industry

In the (petro-)chemical industry, lack of safety may have great consequences for people and the environment. These companies make a huge effort to keep the risks as low as possible for all parties. That is why a lot of attention is given to safety and the environment. Before the work starts, employees must be familiar with the applicable HSE regulations. These regulations are usually based on years of experience. If you carefully observe the regulations, you can be sure that you are working in a healthy, safe and environmentally sound manner.

The general risks in industry are identical to those within utility and housing construction. In industry, you will also have to take special HSE risks into account. In the (petro-)chemical industry you will deal with hazardous substances that are processed, stored or used for their process. Therefore, allow yourself to be properly informed on the type of products that you will come into contact with. What you certainly should not underestimate at these workplaces, is the risk of rotating parts as well as fire and explosion hazards. In many cases the HSE measures when working in industry are recorded in a work permit.

Cooperating safely in on- and offshore

Working on drilling islands and production platforms is not without risk. (Maintenance) work is often performed by various contractors. The procedures and instructions often differ per contractor. That is why a workplace introduction, information and special trainings are required for working in a healthy and safe manner. Experience tells us that contractor personnel are often involved with accidents on drilling platforms. For that reason, it is absolutely necessary that everyone is made aware of the risks that are present at the project.

Cooperating safely in civil engineering technology

Working in civil engineering technology comprises working on roads, railways and waterways (bridges, locks and weirs). Work on roads and railways should in principle be performed when road or rail traffic has been shut down or is being bypassed. Unfortunately, this is not always possible. As a result, work has to be performed while traffic, sometimes partially, continues. In order to hinder the traffic as little as possible, the work sometimes takes place during evenings, nights or weekends.

Roadworks could result in hazardous situations for both road workers and road users. During roadworks, the pattern of expectation of road users is disrupted, which is a major cause of accidents. That is why it is important to demarcate or block the roads correctly. The way in which a road is blocked depends on the type of road (national roads, motorways and urban roads). Often, consultation is required with the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official). This applies in particular to work at railways or waterways.

List of commonly found safety risks

Safety risks during roadworks:
  • Getting run over by passing vehicles.
  • Falling from heights (when working at portals).
Safety risks when working at or near railways:
  • Getting run over by passing trains.
  • Falling from heights (when working at overhead lines).
  • Electrocution.
Safety risks when working at waterways (bridges, locks, weirs):
  • Drowning.
  • Hypothermia after falling in the water.
  • Falling from heights.

Working safely at private clients

When working at private clients you will encounter the same risks as on other types of constructions. But there are differences as well. A private client will react differently to certain things than a client in the building industry. So you will have to approach the client with tact. Moreover, you do not only need specialist skills, but should also be good at DIY. At private clients you will often have to do things yourself and you will usually not be able to hire another professional. Additionally, HSE issues are not arranged according to a plan or regulations.

For a client in the construction industry HSE measures speak for themselves, but this does not apply to private clients. A private client may object, because expensive measures will have to be taken, e.g. for removing asbestos. With a few exceptions, you are not allowed to remove asbestos yourself. Those exceptions are described in the regulations. So, first check whether these regulations are observed, before removing the asbestos. However, you may never cut, saw or drill in asbestos or machine asbestos in any other way. For that, the client must hire a company that specialises in the removal of asbestos. Another example is working on roofs. This is also bound to strict rules. A scaffold or elevating work platform will have to be hired, and these safety measures will have an immediate effect on the private client's costs.

How safe is your workplace?

For installation engineers or entrepreneurs without personnel, this book will be a good guide to determine which HSE measures have to be taken and what they certainly should not do. This will create clarity and can be useful in the interaction with the client.

Working safely in a workshop

Tools and equipment are used in workshops, such as hoisting equipment and various machines. Naturally, these tools will have to meet the HSE requirements and should be used and maintained correctly. When furnishing the workshop, machines and tools will have to be placed in such a way that there are no unnecessary risks for the health and safety of employees. You could think of work where substances are used or released that are hazardous (to the environment). For instance, welding fumes are released during welding and cutting.

2. Working Conditions and environmental legislation

This chapter provides information on Dutch and European regulations in the field of health, safety and the environment at work (HSE). Attention for health and safety is not something new. Already in 1869, the so-called employment conditions included that it was the employee's obligation to make sure that health was maintained. However, this obligation was not counterbalanced by any rights in return. If you were unable to work due to illness or an accident, you would not get paid. These days, the terms of employment and the working conditions have been regulated much better.

2.1 Points of departure of the Working Conditions Act (Arbowet)

The Working Conditions Act (Arbowet) states what employers and employees must do to ensure healthy and safe working conditions. They have a shared responsibility. The Working Conditions Act applies to all employers and employees in the Netherlands, so this also includes trainees and hired workers. The Working Conditions Act is intended to protect the health and safety of employees as much as possible. For a good cooperation, employees and employer must consult each other regularly concerning the circumstances under which safe work will have to take place. On behalf of the employees, this consultation is usually the responsibility of the works council and its HSE committee (or a different type of personnel representation). In many cases, the employer is obliged to assign a prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official). This prevention official has an autonomous and independent position in relation to the employer. He or she will assist the employer in ensuring daily health and safety within the company and will take measures to prevent occupational risks. Naturally, the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) does require the necessary expertise for this. He or she is made available (part time) within the company for all issues related to health, safety and well-being.

Obligations of the employer

The employer is responsible for the working conditions. He must make sure that an employee is able to perform the work in such a way that accidents and damage to health are prevented. The Working Conditions Act includes a large number of obligations for the employer.

These obligations include the following:

  • The employer must investigate the risks of the work activities.
  • The employer must address the hazards and risks of the work at source, e.g. by using safe machines. If this is not possible, the hazard will have to be screened off, e.g. by placing housing around a noisy machine. If this is not possible, individual measures will have to be considered, e.g. through task rotation. If, in spite of these measures, it is still possible that a hazardous situation is created, personal protective equipment (PPE) may be a solution. If this is necessary, the employer should provide this PPE for free.
  • The employer should take measures to prevent absence through illness and disability to work.
  • The employer should properly inform the employee concerning the risks at work. Moreover, the employer will have to train the employees properly for their task, when it comes to health and safety at work. After due time, the training will have to be repeated or supplemented. Young employees (younger than 18 years of age) and pregnant women will be given special attention in relation to this.
  • In case of an accident or other calamity (e.g. fire), the employer will take measures to reduce the consequences (of the fire) as much as possible.
  • The employer provides the employee the opportunity to undergo a periodic health check focusing on the work and the related risks.
  • The employer will make sure that the tasks to be performed and responsibilities are properly distributed, such as supervision of health and safety when performing the work. These persons must get the competence to perform these tasks.
  • The employer will adapt the work place and work content to the personal characteristics of the employee as much as possible.
  • The employer will make sure that monotonous work and work at a predetermined work rate is prevented as much as possible or, if this is not possible, is limited as much as possible.
  • The employer will make sure that measures have been taken as a result of which employees are able to save themselves in case of a threatening hazard.
  • The employer pursues a policy that focuses on preventing or limiting psycho-social stress.

Obligations of the employee

The Working Conditions Act also includes obligations for the employee. Amongst other things, the employee must:

  • use machines, tools, transportation equipment, hazardous substances, etc. in a correct way;
  • not change, remove or bypass safety devices applied to machines;
  • use and maintain prescribed personal protective equipment correctly;
  • participate in information and instruction sessions concerning the risks to health and safety of the work to be performed;
  • report established hazards to health and safety to the workplace management immediately.

These obligations are counter-balanced by the right to interrupt work. This has been regulated in article 29 of the Working Conditions Act. If, according to your own judgement, the work is too hazardous, you may refuse to perform your work or stop performing your work. However, there are two conditions:

1. The hazard must be serious according to your judgement.
2. You must immediately warn the workplace management.

In case of a difference of opinion, the Social Affairs and Employment Inspectorate can be involved.

Structure of the Working Conditions legislation

The working conditions legislation consists of the following components:

1. The Working Conditions Act with general rules and objectives for health and safety at work within companies.
2. The Working Conditions Decree and the Working Conditions Arrangement containing a further interpretation of the obligations from the Working Conditions Act. The Working Conditions Decree, for example, contains articles on working with hazardous substances, the layout of workplaces and building sites, the organisation of the company response plan, the prevention of high physical strain (e.g. lifting or computer work) and requirements in relation to machines and tools.

The Working Conditions data sheets (AI-sheets) are not part of the Working Conditions Act. These provide information from practical experience. However, it is possible to say that a company will observe the Working Conditions Act, if the AI-sheets are applied correctly. These sheets are drawn up around a certain theme, such as working in an enclosed space, constructing mobile scaffolds or securing wall and floor openings.
The policy rules concerning working conditions used to be part of the working conditions legislation. As a result of the completion of the Health and Safety Catalogue, most of these policy rules have become invalid as of 1 January 2011. For more information, see the Health and Safety Catalogue for the installation industry.

A fine!

The Working Conditions Act states that the Social Affairs and Employment Inspectorate is able to impose a fine when the Working Conditions Act is violated. This can be done without the intervention of a court. Not only the employer, but also the employee can be given a fine if he does not observe the working conditions obligations (see section 2.1 obligations of employees).

The Health and Safety Catalogue

In addition to the Working Conditions Act there used to be Working Conditions policy rules as well. These have been replaced through the introduction of the Health and Safety Catalogue. For each industry or sector, the Health and Safety Catalogue records the agreements between the employers and employees concerning health and safety at work. These agreements relate to measures or methods to reduce risks. Once a Health and Safety Catalogue has been approved, it applies to all companies within the sector concerned. The installation industry recorded the following topics in the Health and Safety Catalogue:

1. Working in crawl spaces.
2. Working with/without voltage.
3. Working at heights.

2.2 Environmental legislation

Our living environment is also affected by soil and water quality and possible noise nuisance and air pollution. These environmental issues have an indirect/ direct effect on our health. It speaks for itself that air pollution will be greater near a busy thoroughfare than in the countryside.

For the benefit of the quality of our living environment, companies should observe many environmental laws, regulations, decrees and requirements. The Environmental Management Act (Wet milieubeheer, Wm) is the most important one of these. This act includes regulations that indicate how a clean environment can be achieved (environmental quality requirements). The Environmental Management Act also arranges the company's permit obligations. These permits must provide protection of our living environment, particularly in relation to soil, (ground) water and air. Everyone of us has an effect on the living environment, both at home and at work. At home we find it normal to separate vegetable, fruit and garden waste (VFG). Glass, paper and small chemical waste are deposited in special waste containers.

At work you can also do your bit. As an employee you really do not have to be familiar with all environmental regulations. You do have to be familiar with those regulations that are important for your work. If you observe the following tips, you will contribute to a cleaner environment and a better quality of living environment without too much effort:

  • Make sure that little or no waste streams are created.
  • Remove waste in an environmentally sound way. Batteries and fluorescent lighting are regarded as chemical waste. So do not just leave them lying. Make agreements with colleagues and other persons involved concerning a separated collection and discharge of waste.
  • It is obligatory to store paint products in a separate room in the workshop. On the work floor there should only be sufficient stock to be able to perform the work. Clean regularly and make sure that not used (or residues of) paint products are discharged as chemical waste.
  • Immediately clean spilled chemicals and oil in an environmentally sound manner, using the correct materials.
  • The measures to be able to work with substances or products are stated on the SIS (safety information sheets), leaflet or label. Read them and take the prescribed measures.

Fighting a losing battle?

  • Activities that could affect soil and (ground)water are prohibited. When placing a storage and workshop container, the employer and manager should take into account the risk of pollution.
  • Substances that are hazardous to health (your health or your colleague's health) and the environment may not end up in the living environment. Therefore, do not pour used solvents or other hazardous substances in the sink or the sewer.
  • Always report environmental incidents to your employer! Also when substances have been spilled, for example.
  • Prevent equipment, such as lighting and heating, from remaining on unnecessarily.

2.3 European directives

Since the early eighties of the last century, the EEC - now the European Union (EU) - has been making an effort to improve working conditions. The member states strive for the same level of employment protection. This means that all EU countries should include the European legislation in their own national legislation. In relation to employment protection, the Council of the European Union implemented the Framework Directive 89/391/EEC in 1989. On the grounds of this directive, the Dutch government adapted the working conditions legislation.

The European Framework Directive contains a number of special directives, such as:
  • Workplaces: the directive comprises a number of minimum regulations concerning health and safety at workplaces.
  • Equipment: the directive addresses health and safety during the use of equipment by employees at the workplace.
  • Personal protective equipment: the directive addresses healthy and safe use of PPE at work.
  • Display screen equipment: minimum regulations related to working with display screen equipment in a healthy and safe way.
  • Temporary and mobile building sites: a set of health and safety regulations for temporary and mobile building sites.
  • Safety signs and health signs.

The Dutch legislation should therefore at least comply with the European legislation. Also, Dutch legislation may not be in conflict with the European legislation. The Dutch government is able to demand additional requirements on top of the European legislation if it feels that the European regulations provide insufficient employment protection.

2.4 Mining regulations and safety regulations

By mining construction we mean working on drill islands, onshore and offshore production platforms. The working conditions legislation also applies to mining. This means that working conditions obligations such as drawing up a Risk Inventory & Evaluation (RI&E) also apply to this sector. The RI&E provides insight into the risks that you will have to take into account at work, as well as insight into the measures that have been taken to eliminate the risk. Risk is the probability that a particular hazard with a harmful effect on safety or health will occur. You are not always fully aware of the level of these risks; think, for example, of the presence of hazardous substances or, in the case of a mining installation, the possibility that work is taking place above water. And sometimes, the work that you perform may entail major risks for a mining structure. Therefore, prior to starting the work, ask for the valid task risk analysis (TRA) and be critical in relation to the management measures. It might be a good idea to test the feasibility of the management measures during a toolbox meeting with your colleagues.

The Mining Regulations contain additional conditions in relation to:

  • the construction and installation of a mining site;
  • electrical installations and electrical equipment;
  • safety;
  • health and hygiene.

The legal regulations have been elaborated in the Mining Regulations into practical safety regulations. The mining companies have developed these regulations into internal (company) regulations and (calamity) procedures. However, the rules and procedures may differ per workplace. The workplace management should inform you on this in advance. If you are not informed in time, ask for it yourself.

Special rules

Employees in the onshore and offshore industry must observe a number of special rules. The most important examples are shown below:
  • Access to a location is prohibited for unauthorised persons.
  • It is prohibited to damage, move or remove placed measuring marks.
  • It is prohibited to bring, carry or use alcoholic beverages on the site. This prohibition also applies to other substances that may affect your mental or physical health in such a way that a hazard to safety may be created.
  • You must wear and use the provided (personal) protective equipment.
  • Without permit, it is prohibited to enter a poorly ventilated or difficult to reach room.
  • It is prohibited to smoke at a location.
  • Finally, the managers or supervisors at the workplace must have the Mining Regulations and the safety regulations at their disposal.

2.5 Standards

Standardisation means an accurate description and registration of requirements that have to be met by products and services. In this way you can rely on the fact that a kilo will always weigh a kilo wherever you are, and that a metre is always exactly a metre long. Standardisation may also relate to quality. By stating the requirements in a standard, it is established for all parties involved what they may expect. In the Netherlands, various organisations are involved with drawing up, managing and distributing standards. Important organisations, for example, are the Netherlands Standardisation Institute (NNI) and the Netherlands Electrical Engineering Committee (NEC).

Here you will find a number of very important standards for Health, Safety and the Environment at work, in the installation sector:

NEN 3140 and EN 3840

These standards relate to 'Operation of electrical installations - Low voltage' and 'Operation of electrical installations - High voltage'. These two standards are an elaboration with additional conditions of European standard EN50110.

NEN 3418 and EN 3419

'Measurement of noise at the workplace' indicates how the noise at the workplace should be assessed and, if necessary, measured.

NEN 2449

The standard 'Ergonomic criteria for office work desks' contains requirements concerning the dimensions and design of office tables or desks.

NEN 1812

The standard 'Ergonomic requirements for office work chairs' contains the requirements that office work chairs have to meet.

Agreements

Standards are agreements that are voluntarily observed by interested parties. A standard describes the state of technology and is therefore no legislation. This means that you are not obliged to act in accordance with this standard. If you act in accordance with the standard, you will implicitly comply with the law. If you do not act in accordance with the standard, you do have to meet the same minimum safety protection that is included in the standard.

Since 1985 the focus has been on harmonising the standards within EU countries. Standards that have already been harmonised within the EU are indicated by 'EN + number'. As soon as an EU member state actually includes an EN standard in the national standard, this standard will get an additional prefix that differs for each member state. Some examples of harmonised names are:

  • For the Netherlands: NEN- EN + number
  • for Germany: DIN- EN + number
  • for Great Britain: BS- EN + number.

2.6 HSE Check List for Contractors (SCC)

SCC exists since 1994. SCC refers to Safety, Health and Environment Check list for Contractors (Veiligheid, Gezondheid en Milieu Checklist Aannemers (VCA)). The objective of the SCC system is the prevention of accidents. The SCC system will help you to improve safety performances. An SCC certified company with a good safety performance is often a precondition for clients to invite companies to make an offer or to award an order. SCC is not legally obliged. But companies do find SCC important, from a policy and commercial point of view.

Certification

The SCC questionnaire consists of twelve categories with questions about health, safety and the environment. A number of those questions are 'must' questions. A company will only be considered for the certificate if at least all 'must' questions have been assessed as positive. The assessment is performed by a certification body. A certificate will be valid for three years, provided the company continues to meet the requirements. The certification body will assess this at least once per year.

When certifying companies, a distinction is made between three certification levels:

1. SCC*: intended for companies that do not use subcontractors and where the work is monodisciplinary, routine, not very complex AND limited in scope.
2. SCC**: intended for companies that do employ subcontractors and where the work is multidisciplinary or not only routine or reasonably complex or of a reasonably large scope.
3. SCC Petrochemistry: intended for companies that can act as 'main contractor' for projects in the (petro-)chemical industry. It is also intended for companies that employ subcontractors, where the work is non-routine, complex, of a large scope and multidisciplinary.

Trainings

Within the framework of the SCC certification, requirements are imposed concerning the qualification of employees. In addition to professional training and experience with the work to be performed, they must also attend specific training:

  • All (operational) employees must have the 'SCC Basic Safety' (B-SCC) diploma.
  • Managers at the workplace must have the 'Safety for Operational Supervisors' (SOS-SSC) diploma.

The intention of this training is that employees are made well aware of the necessity to work in accordance with HSE requirements. The diploma/ certificate is only valid if it is provided with the SCC logo. Additional education and trainings are often required as well, in order to be able to perform high-risk work correctly. Examples of this are the NEN 3140 courses, 'fork lift truck driver' and 'flange fitter'. These training are recorded for various industries in the training guide for high-risk work (Gids Opleidingen Risicovol Werk). The work for which additional training is required is recorded on the basis of a risk inventory for each industry. Depending on the risk, requirements are also imposed concerning testing.

2.7 HSE Check List for employment agencies (SCEA)

Sometimes, companies that perform work with an increased risk or work within a high-risk environment, use temporary workers. In this case the secondment agency wants to be sure that the work is performed in a healthy, safe and environmentally sound way. Employment agencies that have a SCEA certificate provide that security. They can have themselves certified on the basis of a special check list. For intermediaries or managers of an employment agency, there is the training and diploma 'Safety for intermediaries and managers SCEA' (SIM-SCEA).

The SCC considers temporary workers as 'internal' personnel, which means that they are your direct colleagues. Introduce these colleagues to the HSE procedures within your company.

Join the club.

2.8 HSE Check List for Principals Clients (SCP)

The SCP is a directive for principals with the objective of preventing accidents by cooperating with the SCC certified contractor in accordance with the HSE regulations. The SCP contains a number of minimum requirements, so that the safety system of the client is optimally aligned with that of the contractor. The ultimate objective is the prevention of accidents.

2.9 OHSAS 18001

OHSAS 18001 is a globally accepted standard containing the minimum requirements for a good health and safety management system. This standard will help employers to systematically interpret their legal obligation to ensure health and safety for employees. It will also help them to establish and implement a policy aimed at creating optimum working conditions.

3. General information on health, safety and the environment at work

In this chapter you will find information that is important to be able to work in a healthy, safe and environmentally sound manner (HSE). It addresses information, instructions, regulations and tips on health and safety signals, order and neatness, quality assurance, hygiene and environmental hygiene. You will also find information on what to do if a calamity or accident occurs.

3.1 Health and safety signs

In spite of proper measures, electricity, the presence of hazardous substances or severe noise nuisance may still pose hazards. On locations where such hazard occurs, warning signs should be placed. At the workplace, universal safety signs are used for this purpose. By means of simple, understandable symbols, these signs warn for a particular hazard. Other signs show which rules of behaviour should be observed for your own safety and that of others.

The signs to be used for this have been standardised within the European Union. In the Netherlands, the symbols on the signs are recorded in the Working Conditions Arrangement. Here, a distinction is made between prohibition signs, instruction signs, warning signs, rescue signs and signs related to fire fighting equipment. An overview of the most important signs for the installation engineering industry can be found on the following pages.

Too much of a good thing?

Prohibition signs

These signs are round, white with a red border and a diagonal line. The sign contains a black symbol.


Smoking
prohibited


Fire, open flames and smoking prohibited


Extinguishing with water prohibited


Prohibited for transport vehicles


No unauthorised access


Do not touch

Instruction signs

These signs are round with a white symbol on a blue background.


Eye protection compulsory


Safety helmet compulsory


Hearing protection compulsory


Respiratory protection compulsory


Face protection compulsory


Safety shoes compulsory


Safety-
gloves compulsory


Safety
suit compulsory


Individual harness compulsory

Warning signs

These signs are triangular, yellow with a black border. The sign contains a black symbol.


Radioactive substances or ionising radiation


Non-ionising radiation


Laser beam
 


Danger
 


Danger of electric voltage


Transport vehicles
 


Tripping
 


Falling as result of difference in height


Suspended loads

Rescue signs

These signs are square or rectangular with a white symbol on a green background.


First aid


Safety shower


Rinse eyes


Telephone for rescue and first aid


Stretcher


Escape route / emergency exit

Fire fighting equipment signs

These signs are square or rectangular with a white symbol on a red background.


Fire hose


Ladder


Extinguishing device


Telephone for fire fighting


Direction to be observed (is used in combination with one of the above signs)

3.2 Order and neatness at the workplace

When working you will use materials, hand tools, racks, stairs, ladders and electrical machines. When work is being performed, waste is created as well, which could result in clutter. If this is the case, the workplace is no longer organised and could be hazardous. Order and neatness are important conditions for working in accordance with HSE requirements. There should not only be order and neatness at the workplace, but also in the common areas, such as the toilet and the wash room, the dressing room and canteens.


Everything under control?

A number of tips

  • Immediately pick up objects that have fallen on the floor.
  • Immediately clean spilled chemicals and oil in an environmentally sound manner.
  • Store excess tools and materials.
  • Remove waste (material) immediately as much as possible, but at least daily.
  • Clean the workplace every day.
  • Attach cords, hoses or cables in such a way that nobody can fall or trip over them.
Order and neatness creates a pleasant and safe work environment! When cleaning, also think of the environment. Discharge (environmentally dangerous) waste according to the directives and separated in relation to type.

3.3 Quality assurance at the workplace

If you want to play football well, you will have to put the right players at the right positions. The players must also be well trained and know what they have to do. The 'customers' are in the stands and want to see an exciting game. In short, they want value for their money.

The work that we do is comparable to this. In order to perform a project properly, employees with the right know-how and experience have to be selected. The projects are often large and complicated. So it is easy for errors to occur, and restoring errors often costs a lot of money. Even worse is the client's dissatisfaction when a project is not going as agreed. The probability of errors is reduced when a company works systematically from the request up to delivery and makes sure that everybody is familiar with the method of working.

Quality assurance has to do with the way in which we organise our work, so that everything goes right from the start and the client gets exactly what he/ she is asking, what has been agreed and what he/she is paying for.

Quality system

Many companies want to guarantee a systematic method of working. That is why they use a quality system. Such a system is based on a standard or directive. For the installation and insulation industry various standards and directives have been drawn up through the years for different activities. These are still being used within these sectors, such as:
  • BRL 6000 for installing gas, water and electrical installations;
  • BORG for safety installations;
  • NCP for fire alarm installations;
  • F-gases for cooling installations;
  • SCIOS for inspection and maintenance of heating installations;
  • NEN-EN-ISO 9001, a generally applicable standard for quality systems for organisations such as installation engineering companies.
The application of a quality system is intended to prevent errors by properly organising the working method from request up to delivery. A quality system can also be used to improve the method of working. Each company is unique. That is why each company will have to 'translate' the rules from the standards and directives to working methods that can be used in practice. All quality systems do have a number of things in common:
  • Responsibilities and competences must be clearly agreed.
  • Work should take place according to the correct drawings and instructions.
  • Employees should have sufficient training and experience for the work that they perform.
  • In advance it should be ensured that the quality of supplied materials meets the requirements.
  • Checks, inspections or tests will have to be performed at critical points with suitable measuring instruments.
  • It should be assessed regularly whether the method of working leads to the required results and how this method of working may be improved.

3.4 Hygiene on the workplace

For hygiene on the workplace the first requirements are facilities for eating, washing and using the toilet. Usually these facilities are available at fixed locations, larger projects and - increasingly - smaller projects. Hygiene on the workplace also involves personal hygiene and working hygienically.

Personal hygiene

For the benefit of good health, it is important that you wash your hands (before and) after visiting the toilet, shower regularly and wear clean clothes. The importance of personal hygiene speaks for itself, at home, but also on the workplace.

Workplace hygiene

Workplace hygiene, also referred to as 'occupational hygiene, focuses on issues that could affect health at work. This is important, because during your work you will come into contact with all kinds of possibly hazardous products and substances. Should these enter your body, this could result in all kinds of health problems. Fortunately, not all these substances are toxic, but they can still be harmful to your health under certain conditions. You may inhale them without noticing. Also when you are smoking, eating or drinking while performing your work or when your skin comes into contact with dirty work clothes, substances could enter your body unnoticed.

It is a misconception that only industrial workers (could) come into contact with hazardous substances. Hazardous substances are also used in workshops, within construction or on board of ships. You could think of sealants, adhesives, paint products or solvents. Inhaling construction dust (quartz) could lead to health complaints as well. In order to work with these substances in a safe and healthy manner, it is important to be familiar with a number of terms.

Effects of hazardous substances on the human body

There are different types of hazardous substances:

  • (Highly) toxic substances could cause severe or permanent health damage when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin.
  • Corrosive substances may cause burns on the skin. When swallowed the mouth or gullet could get burnt and in case of contact with the eyes this may result in (serious) eye injury.
  • Irritants affect the eyes and respiratory organs. Skin irritation is also possible.
  • Hazardous substances are a health hazard when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin. In case of larger amounts of hazardous substances, or prolonged or repeated exposure to hazardous substances, the hazards are comparable to those of toxic substances.

Environmentally hazardous substances may immediately or in due course lead to high risks for air, water or soil. Contamination with biological substances may also result in health problems. Such a contamination could occur during maintenance of office air conditioning systems or when working on (sewer) water treatment plants. Technicians can also be contaminated in rooms where many biological products are present, e.g. in the grain processing industry and abattoirs.

Hazards to humans

Hazardous substances may enter your body. Sometimes you will notice the effect immediately; you will get dizzy, for instance, or you will find it hard to breathe. Sometimes (health) problems only start after a period of time.
The hazards are mainly determined by the way in which a substance enters a body. This is possible via:
1. the mouth: by swallowing liquids or solids;
2. skin contact: through absorption of various substances via the mucous membranes or the skin;
3. the respiratory organs: through inhaling gas, vapour, smoke, mist and finely distributed dust.

In principle, no-one will eat or drink a hazardous substance. Yet, at work it regularly happens that hazardous substances enter the body via the mouth. This has mainly to do with poor personal hygiene. Persons who do not wash their hands or change into clean clothes often enough will run the risk that solids or liquids attach themselves to the skin (hands) or clothes and enter the body without noticing.

The most common hazard at work are the hazardous substances that contaminate the air in the form of gas, vapour, mist or dust particles and enter the body via the respiratory organs. Above a certain concentration, this contamination can be a nuisance or may damage health. So prevent yourself from being exposed to hazardous substances in concentrations that are too high. The question however is when working with (environmentally) hazardous substances becomes a nuisance or harmful to health.

Also be alert concerning possible contamination with biological substances. Biological substances are substances that originate from living material (ticks, viruses, bacteria, etc.). If you give too little attention to personal hygiene, this may result in health problems.

Limit values for substances at the workplace

Of a large number of substances it is known at which concentration they are harmful to health. The level of air pollution at the workplace is determined on the basis of the limit value. The limit value is the maximum concentration of a gas, vapour, mist or dust in the air, of which it is known that repeated exposure - also during the complete working life - will not lead to damage to the health of the person or his or her offspring according to the current scientific knowledge. If the concentration is higher than the limit value, it could be harmful to your health. The limit value is therefore the upper limit that may not be exceeded.

Usually it is not easy to measure the concentration of a substance, gas, vapour or mist at the workplace. It is important that the workplace management seeks advice from a prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).

Measures

The employer performs a Risk Inventory and Evaluation (RI&E). This is an investigation into the nature and scope of risks at the workplace. On the grounds of the RI&E it is determined which measures are required to prevent health risks as a result of exposure to hazardous substances. These measures are primarily aimed at preventing exposure. Sometimes this is achieved by removing or discharging the source. An example of a measure at source is flushing a water pipe system in order to prevent legionnaires' disease.

Proper preparation of the work is also necessary. When working with consumables such as cable filling agents, paints and solvents, it is important that you do so in a safe and healthy way. That is why you should always read the health and safety information on the leaflet or label. Also ask the workplace management for information on hazardous substances that are present at the workplace. For the benefit of your own health, it is important that the instructions are strictly observed, even though the measures sometimes seem difficult or even pointless.

In addition, always ensure good personal hygiene and take care of (small) injuries correctly, particularly when working with hazardous substances.

If these measures provide insufficient certainty or are not feasible, you will have to use personal protective equipment (PPE). In order to protect yourself against infections, e.g. for work in a sewer water treatment plant, you can have yourself vaccinated, in addition to other measures. Remember that a vaccination can never replace all other measures.

Tips for occupational hygiene

  • Do not smoke, eat or drink while working.
  • Wash your hands before eating, smoking, drinking or visiting the toilet.
  • Make sure that (environmentally) hazardous liquids do not make contact with your skin.
  • Use the correct safety gloves.
  • Make sure there are no (environmentally) hazardous substances in offices and canteens.
  • Ensure that accommodation and work areas are clean and uncluttered.
  • Ensure proper ventilation when working with volatile products.
  • Do not leave foodstuffs lying around, as this will attract vermin.
  • Replace dirty work clothes by clean clothes in time.
  • Do not keep walking in clothes drenched with oil or hazardous substances; this is not only unhygienic, but also poses a fire hazard.
  • Always close bottles, cans etc. after use.
  • Take proper care of wounds on hands and arms, even if you are wearing gloves or protective clothing.

Grease-dissolving substances are easily absorbed in the blood via the skin.

Alcohol, medicines and hazardous substances

The hazards of alcohol are well known. However, many people do not know that the combination of alcohol and hazardous substances can be very harmful. Alcohol may reinforce the harmful effect of hazardous substances. The use of alcohol or being under the influence of alcohol is therefore prohibited.

The use of some medications may also reinforce the sensitivity for certain hazardous substances. In case of questions or doubts, please contact your prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) or (company) doctor first.

3.5 Environmental hygiene at the workplace

Substances that are hazardous to health and the environment may not end up in the living environment. By paying attention to this, you will protect the environment and - indirectly - your own health as well. Environment and health are often referred to by means of the term 'environmental hygiene'.

At the workplace you can contribute to working in an environmentally hygienic way by preventing (environmentally) hazardous substances from contaminating water, air and soil. Within your own company, but often also at the project, a prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) is usually appointed. You will be able to consult him or her concerning the applicable rules and regulations.

Working in an environmentally sound way

Practice shows that all too often (environmental) incidents are the result of insufficient know-how of the procedures for working safely. If you do not know what will happen if you mix a waste product with other substances, this could cause a fire with environmental damage as a result.

Environmentally-sound tips

  • Ensure a proper separation of waste: rubble with rubble, paper with paper, plastic with plastic, copper (cables) with copper (cables), etc.
  • Discharge chemical waste in accordance with the instructions on the safety data sheet.
  • Ask for information if you have doubts concerning the rules for discharging company waste, residual solvents and paints, batteries, fluorescent tubes, condensers (PCBs), fire alarms, cable residues, scrap, sealant guns, etc.
  • Ask what agreements have been made concerning the use of the waste containers that are present.
  • Discharge plastic coffee cups, correction ink, toners, batteries etc. correctly as well.
  • Do not pour solvents or other (environmentally) hazardous substances in the sewer, sink or drains.
  • Close drums, cans or bottles with environmentally harmful products properly, so they do not vaporize unnecessarily.

3.6 Physical strain: posture and movement

As a technician you have an arduous occupation. Due to the nature of the work you will often have to work in postures that are a strain to your neck, shoulders, back and legs. In the event of a long period of overburdening, this may lead to health problems and absence through illness.

Usually it is not easy to make ergonomic changes to the workplace (ergonomics = human-centred design). It is possible to prevent problems by using tools, such as adjustable work tables, reel rollers, hand trucks or cable rollers for cabling work. When working at heights, moving scaffolds are a good alternative for ladders and stairs.


Make sure you lift objects correctly. Bend your knees, keep your back straight.

Golden rules for physical strain

If you strain your body incorrectly, regularly or for a long period of time, this may result in serious complaints. Therefore, read the following tips.

What you certainly should do
  • Preferably use aids; tools aimed at the installation and insulation industry can be found on the website of the Health and Safety Catalogue for the installation and insulation industry.
  • Stand right in front of the load, bend through your knees, keep your back as straight as possible, lift carefully and keep as much of the load against your body.
What you should certainly pay attention to
  • Prevent yourself from having to reach too far.
  • Prevent burdens that are too high.
  • Never lift with a turned back.
  • Do not lift more than 25 kilos on your own.
  • Lift less than 25 kilos if you have to lift regularly or if you have to lift in an unfavourable posture.
  • Ask your colleagues for help when moving objects that are too heavy or too large.
  • Use both hands when lifting and do not only lift with your fingers.
  • Watch where you go, mind obstacles and slippery floors and walk in a straight position.
  • Do not bend and lift unnecessarily.
  • Listen to your body and do not force anything.

Tips for pushing and pulling

  • Pushing is better than pulling, because when pushing your body weight will help you to move the load.
  • Use both hands and keep your hands at a height between hip and shoulder.
  • Make sure the work floor is free from obstacles in the direction that you are pushing or pulling.

Tips for vibrations and shocks

If you are working with machines, your body can be exposed to vibrations or shocks. This may lead to back or stomach problems. Working with rotary hammers or hand-held grinders will result in hand and arm vibrations, which could lead to injuries to joints and fingers. You could think of the so-called ‘white finger syndrome’, where the fingers become numb, suddenly turn white and feel cold.
So pay attention to the following:

  • Use a hand tool that has been provided with a cushioned handle.
  • Use vibration damping gloves when working with a vibrating tool, such as a rotary hammer or an impact drill, for a long period of time.
  • Make sure machines are regularly maintained.
  • Keep body and hands warm.
  • Use damping or insulation to prevent body vibrations or shocks, e.g. a suspension seat in a forklift truck.

If you see opportunities to reduce the physical strain during work yourself, please discuss this with your manager. You can also bring forward your own suggestions to perform the work in a different way. You could think of 'shooting' instead of regular drilling, so that hand and arm vibrations are prevented.

General tips for posture and movement at the workplace

  • Preferably use a scaffold and not a ladder.
  • Avoid having to reach far with your arms.
  • Work with your elbows close to your body as much as possible.
  • Avoid having to rest or stand on one leg.
  • Do not stand on an uneven floor for a long period of time.
  • Avoid having to work in a kneeling or squatted position for a long period of time.
  • Avoid twisted and slanted postures.
  • Avoid unnatural head movements, such as bending, hanging and turning far in a forwards and backwards direction.

Work is less tiring if you change your work posture - squatting, kneeling, sitting, etc. - as much as possible.

Also alternate between sitting, standing and walking. It is very tiring to stand for more than one hour or sit for more than two hours.

3.7 Personal protective equipment (PPE)

PPE will protect you against hazards. In this book, hazard means the presence of a source that can be harmful to the health and safety of persons. You could think of chlorine bleach, a product that you will find in virtually every house. This substance has a corrosive effect on the eyes and when inhaled it will cause a sore throat and shortness of breath. On the skin, chlorine bleach causes redness and blisters. There is a risk if, in case of a hazard, the probability that the unwanted effect occurs is taken into account.

At work it is important that all hazards and the probability of an unwanted situation (accident with injury) are identified. Prior to starting the work, ask for the applicable task risk analysis (TRA). Be critical when it comes to management measures and prescribed PPE. Only a correct application will make sure that you are able to work in a healthy, safe and environmentally sound way.

3.7.1 Approach and measures at source

Working in accordance with HSE requirements does not begin with the deployment of PPE, but with the elimination of hazardous and high-risk sources. For instance, by replacing a noisy machine by a quiet one. If elimination at source is not possible, the employer should look for a collective protection. To use the same example: he could place the machine in a separate room, so nobody is affected by the noise. If a collective protection is also not possible, the employer will have to provide PPE for free. In the TRAs (CH5 + CH6) you can see which kind and type of PPE you should use and when.

Mutual responsibility

The employer must ensure that the employee has the correct PPE, so that you are able to perform the work in a way that is as healthy and as safe as possible. The workplace management should provide the employee with proper instructions concerning the correct deployment of PPE. On the other hand, it is the duty of each employee to use the provided PPE in the correct way.

This means that the PPE procedures are the responsibility of both employers AND employees. The Personnel Representatives or the Works Council have a say in these procedures. So you can leave your tips and points for improvement with them.

CE marks

In Europe, demands are placed on the construction of PPE. The material of a PPE should also not pose a health risk to the user. If the equipment meets all requirements, the manufacturer is allowed to attach a CE mark. If PPE is provided with a CE mark, you may assume that it meets the imposed requirements.

PPE: classification and types

In many handbooks, PPE is classified according to the organ or body part to be protected; the same principle is used when ordering PPE. In daily practice, obligatory use is also considered in the classification.

  • Primary PPE, the use of which is generally obligatory; you could think of protective work clothes, safety shoes, safety goggles or safety helmet and hearing protection.
  • Specific PPE, the use of which is not made obligatory in advance. These are used, for instance, in case of work where measures at source are not possible and/or provide insufficient certainty; you could think of a chemical protective suit, respiratory protection and protective gloves.

3.7.2 Protective clothes

Company clothing is worn at many companies and sometimes these clothes fall within the category of protective clothes. Company clothing mainly has a representative function. Always be aware that clean company clothes contribute to your company's good name. Under specific circumstances, such as dirty work or welding, you are expected to wear protective clothing over your (company) clothes. These clothes do not only protect you against dirt, but also offer a certain level of safety protection. That is why this clothing is also referred to as safety clothes.

Safety clothes

These clothes can offer protection against one or more risks. Always consider the following characteristics of good safety clothes.
Good safety clothes:

  • are non-shrink;
  • are functional and are not torn;
  • offer sufficient room for movement;
  • have sleeves and legs that are smooth and tight-fitting;
  • do not have collars, cuffs and sleeve fasteners;
  • are clean and are regularly washed.

Special protective work clothes are worn when general work clothes do not offer sufficient protection. These clothes are selected on the basis of the required level of protection and the specific working conditions. Examples of special protective clothes are overalls with flame-resistant characteristics or special characteristics in relation to static electricity.

Caution:
Washing them incorrectly may affect the special protective characteristics. So do observe the washing instructions. Clothes that have been exposed to chemically hazardous or harmful substances unintentionally, must be offered to a specialising laundry and may not be washed at home.

Clothes for poor weather

These clothes offer protection against changing and extreme climatological circumstances, e.g. when working at cables and pipes in the ground or in a cold storage. Wearing comfort is very important for this type of clothing; i.e.: the clothes should be able to breathe sufficiently.

High visibility clothes

High visibility clothes are worn in order to be seen. At some workplaces a general obligation to wear them applies. Sometimes additional requirements are imposed concerning the amount of reflective material and the colour of the background material. This is the case, for instance, for activities near roads (orange) or railways (yellow). If in doubt, please consult your immediate manager or the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).

3.7.3 Head protection

The safety helmet will protect the head against falling objects or impacts. At some workplaces a general obligation to wear them applies. In that case you should always wear your safety helmet. This will be the case at industrial (offshore) projects and on building sites. A bump cap is not a safety helmet and may not be used as such. A bump cap - as the name suggests - will protect you against bumps and is therefore not intended as a protection against falling objects.

Did I just feel rain?

Tips on how to use safety helmets

  • Do not place a safety helmet on the car's rear window shelf, as the sunlight will age the helmet's plastic more quickly.
  • Always check a safety helmet for possible damages prior to use.
  • Immediately replace a helmet that has fallen from a greater height, is visibly damaged or has been hit by a falling object.
  • Do not attach stickers to the safety helmet, unless you use a special type of adhesive intended for that purpose (always in consultation with the supplier or manufacturer of the helmet). The sticker's adhesive could easily damage the plastic.

Replacement

Various types of plastic are used for the manufacture of safety helmets. As plastics age, the quality of the material will deteriorate and thus the level of protection. The manufacturer will indicate when a helmet will no longer provide the required protection. This can be a period after the production date, but also a period after it was used for the first time. Therefore, carefully read the user manual and the manufacturer's instructions.

Periods of use

Observe the following periods of use that have been calculated as of the production date of the helmet or the date that it was used for the first time. The production date is stated in the helmet. Immediately write down the replacement date in your new helmet, using the following information.

Materials used / Maximum period of use as of the production date or the date that it was used for the first time*

  • Polyethylene   3 years
  • Polycarbonate   5 years
  • ABS Polymer   5 years
  • Textile phenol   10 years
  • Polyester   10 years

* Check the user instructions to see what is applicable.

Insides of head protection

The insides can be used for five years, with the exception of Polyethylene (three years). However, it is possible that you will have to replace it sooner. As soon as the inside of the helmet loses its shape, no longer fits well or shows signs of damage, you should replace it.

The production date is stated in the safety helmet. On the image: 1/08 (= January 2008).

3.7.4 Eye protection

Eye protection ensures an uninterrupted view of the work and prevents flying particles and hazardous radiation from entering your eyes. Some activities require special eye protection equipment. You could think of welding goggles during gas welding, welding hoods or helmets during electric welding and wide view goggles or grinding goggles when grinding. A face shield offers protection against aggressive liquid splashes, grinding dust and electric arcs in case of a short circuit.

Safety goggles

Safety goggles have glasses made of tempered glass or plastic. For people who normally wear glasses, the goggles can also be supplied with prescription lenses. Depending on the type of work to be performed, mineral glasses or plastic glasses are selected. Plastic glasses are more sensitive to scratches, but a surface treatment may reduce the scratches significantly. Plastic glasses have a good resistance to glowing sparks and/or splashes. Wearing a plastic frame and plastic glasses is recommended for electric engineering work. The chemical durability, however, is less than that of glass. In short, do seek advice from a prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).

In the (petro-)chemical industry, wearing contact lenses is usually not allowed, so you will have to wear glasses. If you wear glasses, you need to wear safety goggles with prescription lenses.

Safety goggles must always be provided with side covers.

3.7.5 Hearing protection

Noise is harmful to hearing. Hearing protection is recommended at noise levels over 80dB(A), as deafness as a result of noise may occur from this level. At noise levels over 85dB(A), wearing hearing protection is obligatory.

There are two types of hearing protection:
1. Protection on the ears: you will usually wear ear muffs when the noise nuisance lasts for a short period of time, e.g. during drilling and grinding. Ear muffs reduce the noise level by an average of 15 to 25dB.
2. Protection in the ears: earplugs, hearing pads, ear rolls or customised otoplastics are the best solution in case of regular high noise levels at the workplace. If applied correctly, these will reduce the noise by an average of 10 to 15dB. Customised otoplastics are recommended in case of continuous exposure to harmful noise. These are more comfortable to wear and reduce the noise level by 15 to 30dB. Your hearing is properly protected, while at the same time you are able to hear other people normally.

Tip on the use of hearing protection

Prevent infection in the auditory canal and make sure your hands are clean when inserting your earplugs in your ears.

The following table shows the effect of the different types of hearing protection.

Noise level in dB(A) Pads, wads, caps Ear muffs Otoplastics
up to 90 Good Good Good
90 - 95 Sufficient Good Good
95 - 100 Insufficient Sufficient Good
100 - 105 Insufficient Insufficient Sufficient

3.7.6 Foot protection

Safety shoes and boots will protect your feet against injuries caused by impacts or falling objects. As you usually will have to wear your shoes throughout the day, it is important that they are comfortable. Safety shoes are available in various (width) sizes. Safety shoes and boots are classified according to the following categories (standard EN 345).

Type Description
S1 Shoes for dry working conditions. These have a closed heel, steel toecap, are anti-static and are provided with energy absorption in the heel.
S2 Shoes for humid working conditions. These have the same characteristics as the S1 shoe, except that they are water-proof.
S3 Shoes for locations where you can step into sharp objects, such as glass, nails and metal chips. These have the same characteristics as the S2 shoe, except that they have been provided with a steel midsole.
S4 (boot) Boots made out of one piece. These can be used under very humid conditions and when working with aggressive fluids.
S5 (boot) This boot has the same characteristics as the S4 boot, but also has a steel midsole and a profiled tread.

Maintenance tips

  • Allow your safety shoes to dry at the end of the work day.
  • Place your shoes in a well ventilated room, i.e. not on or below a heating radiator and preferably not in your wardrobe.
  • Do not put socks or other items in your shoes.
  • Regular cleaning and greasing will increase wearing comfort and extend the life span of your shoes.

Only S3 safety shoes and S5 safety boots are suitable for working in construction or industry.

3.7.7 Hand protection

Working in the installation engineering sector puts high demands on the 'finger sensitivity' of work and safety gloves. For that reason, there is a special work or safety glove for virtually any application, in order to protect your hands. That is why it is also important that the type of work is clearly described. The employer or manager should therefore consult a prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) in advance, so that the type of glove can be adapted to the nature of the work. Selection of the correct glove is important, especially when working with hazardous substances. When moving sharp, rough, pointy or serrated materials, it would be best to wear generally protective gloves. Usually, these are leather work gloves with a cotton back.

3.7.8 Respiratory protection

Respiratory protection will make sure that you inhale no or less substances, gases and vapours that are (possibly) harmful to your health. There is no universal solution for respiratory protection. The prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) or client will be able to give the employer or the manager advice on the required type of respiratory protection.

There are two categories of respiratory protection:
1. Non-autonomous respiratory protection (filter masks): these consist of a mask (= face piece) and a filter. The wearer breathes through the filter, which will clear the ambient air from unwanted and/or harmful ingredients.
2. Autonomous respiratory protection: these supply breathable air by means of cylinders or a compressor from a location outside the harmful work environment.

Non-autonomous respiratory protection

The types of filter masks that are used most are:

  • the disposable mask (FF), existing of a face piece and a filter to breathe, protecting the airways against solid dust particles. If the mask does not fit properly, it is still possible that solid particles are inhaled;
  • half face masks can generally be provided with a dust filter and a suitable filter canister that provides protection against hazardous volatile substances (gases and vapours);
  • the full face mask provides the greatest protection, as it also protects the eyes. The possibilities of use are the same as those of the half face mask.
The different types of filters for a filter mask can be subdivided into dust filters, gas and vapour filters and combination filters.

On the packaging of the respiratory protection and on the item itself you will find a large number of indications. Without wanting to be complete, the table on the next page provides a summary of the type indications.

Type indications

In the following table you will find the type indications for filters that provide protection against concentrations of hazardous substances - colour code white.

Type Intended for
P1 Inert floating substance with a concentration of 10 mg/m3
P2 Hazardous substance with a concentration of 0.1 to 10 mg/m3 (except for asbestos)
P3 Toxic substance with a concentration up to 0.1 mg/m3 Asbestos Carcinogenic substances

In the following table you will find the type indications (according to EN14387) for filters providing protection against certain types of gases or vapours. Here, a colour indication is used as well.

Type of filter Intended for Colour of canister
A Organic vapours and solvents with a boiling point ≥65°C Brown
AX Organic vapours and solvents with a boiling point ≤65°C Brown
B Inorganic gases and vapours Grey
E Sulphur dioxide (sulphuric acid), hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid ) Yellow
K Ammonia Green
NO Nitrous vapours Blue
Hg Mercury vapour Red
CO Carbon monoxide Black

The FF code is used for:

  • disposable masks
  • maintenance-free gas and vapour masks.

    Gas filter class

    Choosing the correct filter is a complex process. Consultation with the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) or the client is absolutely necessary. Certainly when you have to work in an environment with possibly high concentrations of hazardous gas or hazardous vapour. In these cases, working with a filter mask is often no longer allowed, and autonomous respiratory protection will have to be worn. Remember the following rules of thumb:
  • Filter class 1 is required in case of a contamination of less than 0.1 % by volume = 1,000 ppm.
  • In case of contamination of less than 0.5 % by volume = 5,000 ppm, filter class 2 is required in combination with a full face mask.

Protective factor of filter masks

The required nominal protective factor (NPF) provides the ratio between the concentration of hazardous substance at the work place and the concentration (limit value) that you are allowed to inhale via the filter mask. A filter mask with NPF 4 will usually stop 75% of hazardous substance, gas, vapour or mist. It is important to know that the NPFs have been established on the basis of a standardised test. You should also take into account that an NPF is only reliable in case of correct use.

Or perhaps a vacuum cleaner bag would be better?

Usage tips:

  • Filter masks do not last forever. Replace them in time. The life span strongly depends on the concentration when working.
  • Read the leaflet prior to use.
  • The filter mask does not provide a warning against lack of oxygen. So sufficient oxygen should be present and guaranteed.
  • Do not use filter masks in enclosed rooms, use autonomous respiratory protection instead.
  • Beard growth will reduce the effect of a mask.
  • After use, filter canisters must be collected as chemical waste.

Autonomous respiratory protection

In order to reduce risks when using autonomous respiratory protection, you must undergo a medical examination and attend training. If you are in a poor physical conditions or if your lungs are not functioning well, a little breathing resistance may cause problems. Ask your company doctor for this examination; you will be able to contact him via your manager.

The use of compressed air masks is only allowed if you have been trained to do so and are in the possession of a valid certificate.

Use autonomous respiratory protection if:

  • there is severe contamination, more than 1.0 % by volume or 10,000 ppm;
  • the maximum concentration allowed for the filter mask is exceeded;
  • the oxygen percentage is less than approximately 19 % by volume (approximately 21 % by volume is normal);
  • respiratory protection is required during work in enclosed spaces.

Take good care of your health. It is not macho, but very stupid, not to wear PPE.

Overview of PPE

The overview to the right contains the most commonly used primary PPE. For each workplace it is indicated which PPE is used. Ask for information on site. If it is not clear, ask your immediate manager.

NFM = Not Flame Maintaining
X = recommended as absolutely required
O = optional

Head protection

Protective equipment Safety helmet
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction X
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering X
Offshore X
Workshop O
Storeroom O

Hearing protection

Protective equipment Earplugs and wads and rolls
Service & maintenance X
Utility construction X
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering X
Offshore X
Workshop O
Storeroom O
Protective equipment Ear muffs
Service & maintenance X
Utility construction X
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering X
Offshore X
Workshop O
Storeroom O
Protective equipment Otoplastics
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction O
Industry O
Infrastructure engineering O
Offshore O
Workshop X
Storeroom O

Eye protection

Protective equipment Safety goggles
(plane and prescription lenses)
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction O
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering O
Offshore X
Workshop X
Storeroom O
Protective equipment Protective goggles
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction O
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering O
Offshore X
Workshop X
Storeroom O

Respiratory protection

Protective equipment Filter mask; fine dust
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction X
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering X
Offshore O
Workshop O
Storeroom

Hand protection

Protective equipment Work gloves
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction X
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering X
Offshore X
Workshop X
Storeroom O
Protective equipment Protective gloves (some finger sensitivity)
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction X
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering X
Offshore X
Workshop O
Storeroom O
Protective equipment Protective glove (fluid-proof)
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction O
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering O
Offshore X
Workshop O
Storeroom O

Foot and leg protection

Protective equipment Safety shoe S2 high/ low
Service & maintenance X
Utility construction
Industry
Infrastructure engineering
Offshore
Workshop X/O
Storeroom X
Protective equipment Safety shoe S3 high/ low (steel midsole)
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction X
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering X
Offshore X
Workshop X
Storeroom X/O
Protective equipment Safety boot S5 (steel midsole)
Service & maintenance
Utility construction O
Industry O
Infrastructure engineering O/X
Offshore O
Workshop
Storeroom

Protective clothes

Protective equipment Overall
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction X/O
Industry
Infrastructure engineering X/O
Offshore
Workshop X/O
Storeroom X/O
Protective equipment Overall NFM quality
Service & maintenance
Utility construction
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering
Offshore X
Workshop O
Storeroom O
Protective equipment Trousers with jacket
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction O/X
Industry
Infrastructure engineering O/X
Offshore
Workshop X/O
Storeroom X/O
Protective equipment Outerwear
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction X
Industry
Infrastructure engineering X
Offshore
Workshop
Storeroom
Protective equipment Outerwear NFM quality
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction
Industry X
Infrastructure engineering
Offshore X
Workshop
Storeroom
Protective equipment High visibility clothing (vest, jacket)
Service & maintenance O
Utility construction
Industry
Infrastructure engineering X
Offshore
Workshop
Storeroom
Protective equipment Work clothes (trousers, polo, sweater, etc.)
Service & maintenance X
Utility construction
Industry
Infrastructure engineering
Offshore
Workshop
Storeroom

3.8 Calamity prevention and company emergency response

In case of a calamity, you could think of a fire, explosion, and accidents with personal injuries, emissions of hazardous substances or near-accidents, help should be provided as quickly as possible. If necessary, the professional emergency services (fire brigade, police or ambulance) should be warned immediately. In anticipation of their arrival, the so-called company emergency response team must provide help with the correct equipment.

In this section you will find information how to act in various working conditions (in order to safe lives).

Calamity plan

A calamity or disaster plan is an emergency procedure. The plan describes how, in an emergency situation, help can be provided as efficiently as possible. Each company is obliged to draw up such a plan and make clear who should do what. This means that an inventory has to be made first of which calamities might occur and what type of emergency response is required per calamity. In that way, it will be possible to limit the consequences for employees, residents and the environment. You could think of equipment, such as first aid equipment and fire extinguishers, but also of trainings that are required so that employees are able to provide first aid and operate a fire extinguisher.

Preparation

The activities within installation engineering are highly varied and are performed at a large number of different workplaces. This variation means that incidents of all kinds could occur at work. In the case of activities in the (process) industry, the damage could be huge. These companies therefore give a high priority to external safety. By external safety we mean all activities intended to prevent disaster situations and limit possible consequences. Everyone entering a company site should strictly observe the rules.

At some workplaces you will work with employees from other companies. In such a situation, an incident or calamity may occur as well. For that reason, the various companies will have to make mutual agreements concerning emergency response at work, before the work starts.

Company emergency response

In case of a calamity, the company emergency response officials should provide assistance in anticipation of the professional response teams. It is the employer's responsibility to organise the company emergency response. On each location and at each project, one or more emergency response team members must be present. They will get special training and will regularly attend repeat trainings.

The number of response providers and the level of expertise depends on, amongst other things:

  • the expanse of the company site (an emergency response provider should be able to be on site within a few minutes);
  • the (special) risks of the project;
  • the number of employees on the site and the times at which they are present (e.g. shifts).

The tasks of a company emergency response provider are:

  • perform first-aid in case of accidents (Fist Aid);
  • fighting fires at an early stage;
  • alarm persons present during emergency situations and provide shelter or evacuate buildings, depending on the calamity;
  • alarm professional aid workers and cooperate with them.

What to do in case of a new workplace

If you start working somewhere for the first time, it is very important that the workplace management informs you on:

  • the rules at work;
  • the possible emergency procedure for the activities;
  • the organisation of the company emergency response at the project;
  • how you are able to alarm and recognise emergency response providers.

If you are not informed, please ask your immediate manager, the client or the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) for this information,

What you should at least know:

  • How to report calamities.
  • How you can recognise emergency response providers and how you can alarm them.
  • How you can give an alarm in case of a starting fire, whether there is an alarm number and where you can find small fire extinguishers.
  • Which alarm signals are used.
  • What you must do when hearing the alarm signals.
  • How you can use emergency provisions.

Do not provide information!
A calamity can be very harmful to a company's reputation. Especially when all kinds of contrary information appears in the press after the calamity. Companies agree who the spokesperson will be, so that no incorrect news is spread. That is why it is so important that you do not provide information to third parties without informing your workplace management.

3.9 Industrial accidents

In spite of all precautions, it is still possible that an accident takes place. Firstly, it is very important that this is dealt with properly. The emergency response providers and professional aid services must be alarmed and will take action. Then, an investigation into the cause is started. Most companies have an internal instruction for reporting and recording incidents and industrial accidents.

What is an industrial accident and what is a near-accident?

The official definition of an industrial accident is as follows: “An industrial accident is an unwanted event, caused by an unsafe action and/or situation.” This definition only mentions the cause of the accident. The consequences are not mentioned, as these are usually determined by chance. Example: a steel plate falls out of the crane in the workshop. Usually this will end well, because there was no-one standing under the load. Here, we are dealing with a near-accident. If someone happened to be standing under the load, this person would probably suffer severe physical injury. The cause is the same in both situations, but chance determines the consequences. An investigation into the cause of a near-accident will prevent something similar in the future from having a bad outcome.

Move quickly: of course. Panic? No!

What to do after an industrial accident.

1. First provide first aid (company emergency response) and prevent worse. So check, for instance, whether there is a collision hazard, whether struc- tures could collapse, or whether components could fall (over).
2. Call the emergency number (this could be 112) and provide the exact location. A building site is sometimes hard to find. In that case, send someone outside to guide the ambulance to the location of the accident.
3. Have the next of kin of the victim informed and, if necessary, make sure the victim is accompanied to the hospital. You could have this arranged via the office.
4. Report the accident as quickly as possible to the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official). In case of a small company, the managing director or his representative will usually take on these tasks.
5. Accidents where someone suffered (possible) permanent physical injury and/or fatal accidents, must be reported to the Social Affairs and Employment Inspectorate by the employer. In these cases, leave the situation of the accident intact. So, remove nothing and change nothing, unless this is necessary to prevent worse.
6. Complete the standard accident report as fully as possible and send it to the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).

Report (near) accidents, hazardous situations, risks and material damage.

Everyone has the duty to report hazardous situations or situations that could lead to such a situation to the immediate manager at once. An environmental accident or environmental nuisance, such as odour and noise, should also be reported to the immediate manager. This also applies to accidents with damage to buildings, equipment, raw materials or products. Then, the immediate manager must take action and measures.

3.10 Life-saving actions

An accident always happens unexpectedly. If people are seriously injured, good first aid may sometimes save lives. The first few minutes after the accident, the victim depends on assistance from people (who happen to be) in the neighbourhood. This section provides a few instructions, allowing you to act adequately in anticipation of the arrival of the professional emergency services. Do remember that the emergency situations described here still require professional help.

Four basic rules

1. Establish the situation
  • Think of your own safety and that of bystanders.
  • Try to find out what happened.
  • Reassure the victim and provide shelter.
2. Give alarm
  • Alarm the emergency response providers or, if not available, call emergency number 112.
  • Report the location/place, the type of injury if possible and the number of victims.
3. Provide first aid
  • Stay with the victim.
  • Keep the victim warm, if necessary.
4. Arrange transport
  • Do not move the victim, unless this is absolutely necessary.
  • Wait for expert help and have the victim transported.

What to do if the victim is no longer breathing

Mouth to mouth resuscitation

1. Recognise the symptoms
Someone who is no longer breathing is unconscious, has blue lips and turns blue around the mouth. Breathing can stop as a result of, for instance, drowning, choking or cardiac arrest.
2. Check breathing
Place your flat hand with spread fingers between the chest and stomach and listen to the respiration. In case of a normally breathing person you will feel the chest moving and you will hear the respiration.
3. Apply mouth to mouth resuscitation

  • Take the correct position: turn the victim on his or her back. Kneel with both knees next to the head. Place a hand on the forehead. Place two fingers under the bony part of the chin, tilt the head backwards and lift the chin.
  • Close the nose: do this with your thumb and index finger of the hand resting on the victim's forehead. Breathe in and out deeply in one go.
  • Blow in your breath and watch: you are providing the victim with air that you are breathing out; it still contains sufficient oxygen to keep someone alive. Place you wide opened mouth on the victim's mouth. Breathe in and blow your breath for a period of two seconds into the victim's mouth. When blowing out, watch the victim's chest.
  • If the chest clearly rises, you have blown in sufficient air.
  • Allow to breathe out: remove your mouth from the victim's mouth, allowing him or her to breathe out. Check if the chest goes back down again. Breathe in and again blow in air. Make sure you do not inhale the air breathed out by the victim.

If the victim is no longer breathing, immediately start reanimation according to the latest first aid guidelines. This means resuscitation AND applying chest compression. Only apply chest compression if you are familiar with the technique.

What to do if the victim is unconscious

Place the victim on his side in a stable position if breathing gets worse.

1. Check whether the victim is conscious: speak to him/her. If the victim does not respond, carefully shake the shoulders, making sure you move the head as little as possible.
2. Check breathing: if the victim does not respond, but does breathe, the victim is unconscious.
3. Place the victim in a stable sideways lying position.
4. Free the mouth of the victim, so he/she is able to breathe freely.
5. Loosen constraining clothes.

What to do in case of a heart attack

1. Recognise the symptoms:

  • Intense, contracting pain in the mid-front chest.
  • Pain lasting for more than 15 minutes, even if the victim is lying quietly.
  • Pain that radiates to neck, back or arms.
  • The victim can be restless or nauseous, perspire and even throw up.

2. Immediately call 112 and state that it concerns a heart problem.
3. Allow the patient to sit quietly in a half-sitting position in anticipation of professional medical assistance.
4. Stay with the victim and check whether he/she remains conscious by talking to him/her.
5. Check breathing by watching the movement of the chest.

Caution:
Short, sharp shooting pains at one place on the chest almost never indicate a heart attack.

What to do in case of an accident involving electricity

1. Recognise the symptoms: in case of an electricity accident (electrocution), burns and heart rhythm disorders may occur. The type and the seriousness of the injury depends, amongst other things, on the strength of the current, the period of time, current passage and frequency.
2. Think of your own safety: it is possible that the cause of the accident has not yet been remedied.
3. Cool burns, preferably with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
4. Reanimate immediately in case of a cardiac arrest: apply chest compression and resuscitation, only do this if you are familiar with the technique.
5. Always take the victim to a doctor or hospital for observation, also if everything turns out well. Do not allow the victim to drive himself, because a cardiac arrest may still occur.

Cardiac arrest and fibrillation
The heart is a hollow muscle that pumps blood through the body by meansof a contracting motion. The contracting motion of the muscle is caused by generating rhythmical electric currents.These currents are generated by a so-called ‘sinoatrial node’. If someonehas had an electric shock, it is possible that the rhythm by means of which the currents are sent to the heart is interrupted and that the heart contracts randomly. This is called ‘fibrillation’. A fibrillating heart does not pump around blood. The sending of electric currents can also stop spontaneously. If that is the case, we are dealing with a cardiac arrest. In both situations there is a reasonable chance that the heart can be helped by using an Automatic External Defibrillator (AED). Just like a sinoatrial node, an AED will give a strong electric shock that will 'startle' the heart in such a way that the sinoatrial node takes over the function again. You could compare it with an emergency start using an auxiliary battery that you will use in winter if your own battery is not strong enough to start the engine. An AED has two plasters attached to cords. The plasters must be placed on the chest according to the instructions on the AED. Then observe the spoken instruction manual. Nothing can go wrong. If an AED is not connected properly, it will not work. The above-mentioned situations occur on a daily basis and use of the AED has already saved many lives.

What to do in case of burns

The first and only aid that you can offer is cooling for a long period of time, preferably with lukewarm water. The water may not be too cold, as the victim will not be able to stand contact with very cold water for a long time. A burn should be cooled for at least 15 minutes. If the pain is not reduced, cool for another 15 minutes.

What you should do:
1. Cool the wound for approx. 15 minutes or until the pain has reduced. Cool with lukewarm streaming tap water.
2. Prevent hypothermia, do not use cold water and only cool the wound.
3. Only remove clothing that is not stuck to the wound.
4. Warn a doctor in case of blisters, an affected skin or electric and chemical burns.
5. Do not apply anything on the burn.
6. Cover the wound with a sterile bandage or a clean cloth.
7. Do not give the victim any food or drink.
8. If possible, transport the victim in a sitting position.

The following applies to all burns: water first, the rest will follow.

How to stop bleeding

1. Recognise the symptoms. There are two types of bleeding:
+ Arterial bleeding: the blood streams from the wound in spurts and has a light-red colour.
+ Venous bleeding: the blood streams from the wound regularly and has a dark-red colour.
2. In both cases you should stop the bleeding as quickly as possible:
press close the wound using a cloth or your thumb; in case of a large wound you should use your fist. It is sometimes possible to close an arterial bleeding by pressing it against the lower bone, but you must be familiar with the technique.
3. If possible, raise the body part concerned.
4. Take the victim to a first aid worker or doctor as quickly as possible, or call 112 in case of severe bleeding.


What to do if hazardous substances, gases or vapours have been inhaled

1. Protect yourself.
2. Take the victim to fresh air.
3. If necessary, apply mouth to mouth resuscitation. Do make sure you do not inhale the victim's breath, as it may contain harmful gases or vapours.
4. Take the victim to a doctor immediately.
5. Show the doctor the label or the product data sheet of the substance(s) concerned, so he/she knows what type of poisoning it concerns.

What to do if people have been in contact with toxic or corrosive substances

1. Take the victim outside of the hazard zone.
2. Remove wet clothes.
3. Rinse the affected skin for at least 30 minutes with lukewarm flowing water. If the victim is affected over his/her whole body, place him/her in a bath.
4. Do not touch the affected skin.
5. Immediately consult a doctor.
6. Show the doctor the label or the product data sheet of the substance(s) concerned, so he/she knows what type of substance it concerns.

Caution:
The victim that inhaled or has been in contact with hazardous substances should always be taken to a doctor immediately. In case the symptoms of poisoning only become visible some time later, the doctor may take preventive measures.

3.11 Fire and fire-fighting

Fire can be created in many ways, e.g. when working with flammable material. There are also different kinds of fires. Know-how on what causes fire and knowledge of the various kinds of fires are necessary to determine how a fire can be extinguished and what should be used.

Combustion

A fire is created if three factors (fire triangle) are present at the same time: 1. A flammable substance.
2. Ignition temperature.
3. Oxygen.

In order to extinguish a fire, one of the three factors has to be removed. On the basis of the flammable substance (factor 1 from the fire triangle), a classification into ‘fire classes’ has been made. It is important to know that each extinguishing agent states the fire class. In this way you will know exactly which extinguishing agent to use for which fire.

Fire Fire classes
Solid substance fires Fire class A
Fluid fires Fire class B
Gas fires Fire class C
Metal fires Fire class D

Fire hose reel

Types of extinguishing agents for a starting fire

Starting fires are extinguished with small extinguishing agents, such as:

1. Water from a fire hose reel

Water has a cooling action. A small amount of water is already able to absorb a large amount of heat in a short space of time. This is reinforced by the fact that the water evaporates. Water has the greatest effect when the water sprayed in the fire converts into steam. Water as an extinguishing agent is available via a fire hose reel that you will usually find in corridors. The fire hose of a reel is usually 20 metres long.

Extinguishing method

At first you should extinguish with a jet spray and only then with the compacted (full) spray onto the core of the fire.

Caution: Do not use the fire hose reel for topping up flower boxes or washing a car. When using a fire hose reel, there is always a risk that the water is contaminated with legionella bacteria.

The type of extinguishing agent and its applicability for different fire classes are indicated on the extinguishing appliance.

2. Foam extinguisher

A foam extinguisher has a retarding action and contains a foam forming liquid that is added to water. The water will cool the sprayed surface and the foam will limit evaporation and partly absorb the radiation heat. The extinguisher is also suitable for fire classes A and B. Some foam extinguishers are provided with a special non-conductive foam forming liquid that is also suitable for extinguishing electricity fires. If that is the case, this will be stated on the extinguisher.

Extinguishing method

+ Keep the extinguisher straight.
+ Remove the locking pin and activate the cylinder.
+ Aim the nozzle.
+ Press down the trigger.

3. Carbon dioxide snow extinguisher (CO2 extinguisher)

CO2 has a suffocating action through the removal of oxygen. The extinguishing gas has a pressure of approximately 65 bar. By means of an expansion cylinder, the pressure is reduced to ambient pressure. As a result the gas will cool to approx. -80°C. CO2 extinguishers are available in many versions, varying from 2 to 30 kg.

Extinguishing method

+ Always keep the extinguisher straight.
+ Remove the locking pin.
+ Hold the grip of the expansion cylinder.
+ Get as near to the fire as possible with the expansion cylinder.
+ Cover the flames with the extinguishing gas.
+ Keep the throw length into account; the throw length of a 6 kg extinguisher is approximately 4 metres and the spraying duration will be about 19 seconds.

4. Powder extinguisher

These extinguishers contain a powder that will disrupt the combustion reaction. A powder extinguisher can contain various types of extinguishing powders.

Extinguishing method

+ Remove the locking pin and activate the cylinder.
+ Spray the extinguishing substance low into the fire in bursts.
+ In case of fluid fires, do not aim the spray directly onto the fluid.
+ Do not come too close to the fire.
+ Keep the throw length into account; the throw length of a 6 kg extinguisher is approximately 8 metres and the spraying duration will be about 10 seconds.

Extinguishing electricity fires

When extinguishing a so-called electricity fire, extra care is required. Absolutely no water may be used in electricity distribution and control equipment An electricity fire can be extinguished with carbon dioxide snow and some powders.

Choosing the right extinguishing agent in case of a starting fire

In the following table you will find an overview of various extinguishing agents that are suitable in case of a starting fire, as well as their application areas. Read the table, so you will know which extinguisher to use in case of an emergency. Read the user instructions on the extinguisher in advance and check the expiry date on the label.

++ very good + good +/- reasonable - poor
▲ dangerous * type of extinguishing powder (indicated on extinguisher) ** not for switching device

Fire class F indicates that the extinguishing agent is suitable for extinguishing large volumes (more than 5 litres) of very hot oils and greases, e.g. in large deep-frying ovens.

What to do in case of a fire

If no specific regulations apply at the location, proceed as follows:
+ Always immediately warn the fire brigade in case of a fire; after all, small fires may develop into large fires in only a few minutes.
+ Make sure people go or are brought to a safe place; this has the highest priority.
+ You should only try to extinguish starting fires, but preferably leave this to a trained emergency response provider of the company.

Proceed as follows when extinguishing a fire

+ Do not take unnecessary risks; preferably do not work alone.
+ Use the correct extinguishing agent.
+ Go to a safe place if the fire becomes too large or gets out of control.
+ When extinguishing in open air, always stand with the wind at your back.
+ Extinguish from the outside to the inside and aim the spray on the bottom side of the flames.
+ When using a fire hose, first extinguish with the jet spray and then with the compacted (full) spray in order to extinguish the core of the fire.

Points of attention when extinguishing with extinguishing cylinders, such as powder or foam extinguishers

+ Remove the lock pin and activate the cylinder.
+ Always aim the cylinder away from you at an angle of 60 degrees.
+ In case of solid substances, extinguish in bursts, in case of a fluid fire, extinguish continuously.
+ Never spray in the middle of burning fluid. This may only make the fire worse.
+ Keep in mind that the fire may be re-ignited. Walk backwards and keep the extinguisher ready, in case the flames start again.
+ Separate the extinguished materials and check whether there are still areas that are glowing. Extinguish them.
+ Always warn the (company) fire brigade – even if the fire has been extinguished. If the fire has already been extinguished, the (company) fire brigade will perform the post inspection. Often there will be a procedure for this at the workplace.
+ After use, hand in the extinguishing equipment at the supplier. Never return a used appliance to its original location.

Maintaining and replacing extinguishing equipment

It is important that the employer makes sure that extinguishing equipment is periodically inspected. Old rusty cylinders must be disposed of, because of explosion hazards. Rusted through cylinders have led to a number of serious accidents in the past. Used extinguishing equipment should be handed in at the supplier. So, never return a used appliance to its original location.

4. Dealing responsibly with risks at work

Each activity involves some form of hazard; sometimes it is visible, sometimes not. If the correct measures are taken, a hazard does not have to pose a risk to health and safety and you will be able to limit the risk of damage or injury to an acceptable level. Take the presence of sulphuric acid as an example. This hazardous substance has a corrosive effect on eyes, skin and lungs. However, if the substance is packaged safely, the probability of making contact with it is small.

In this chapter we will discuss the risks of different work situations, such as working with tools, working with monitors and working at heights. The risks of various activities, such as transportation, working with electricity as well as welding, cutting, burning and soldering are also discussed. Attention is also given to working in an environment with harmful noise, ionising and non-ionising radiation, hazardous substances and fibres, and gas and dust explosion hazards.

4.1 Working with monitors

When working with monitors, a number of rules apply. If you observe these rules, you will be working in a responsible manner, which will prevent health problems and make it much easier to work with a monitor.

Complaints caused as a result of working with monitors

A common complaint when using computers is RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury) or CANS (Complains on Arms, Neck and Shoulders). RSI is the collective name for complaints that occur as a result of making the same movements with hand, wrist, arm and/or shoulder for a longer period of time, whereby the muscles stay tense for a long time. A lack of physical movement will reinforce the harmful effect. Symptoms of RSI are pain, stiffness, tingling, cramp or a numb feeling. Persons who often work with a screwdriver, for instance, can also suffer from RSI. Sometimes aids are used to prevent or reduce the complaints. Whether these actually work strongly depends on the type of work and the health problems. So do seek some good advice on this in advance.

Eye problems when working with monitors

Computer monitor workers sometimes suffer from tired eyes. This is often caused by great differences in contrast, the lack of adapted lighting or poorly readable documents due to small fonts. Persons wearing reading glasses who do not wear adapted monitor glasses may also suffer from tired eyes. This is due to the fact that the reading distance from the monitor is different from the reading distance from written documents. There is no indication that working with monitors can cause permanent damage to the eyes.

What to do in the case of health problems

If you suspect that you are suffering from RSI or tired eyes, try to improve your workplace together with the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) on the basis of the 5 work rules (see further down this page). If the problem persists, consult your GP and inform the company doctor as well. The company doctor is familiar with the work situation within the company and the sector. Moreover, he will be able to involve specialists in the field of monitor work from the working conditions service who will investigate the work environment and the furnishing of the workplace and provide recommendations.

Organisation of the work

The Working Conditions Act states that you are not allowed to work with a monitor throughout the day and that the work should be interrupted on a regular basis. In order to prevent health problems and remain in a good condition, you should in principle not work with a monitor for more than 5 to 6 hours a day and not longer than 2 hours continuously. Make sure you regularly interrupt monitor work with other work, such as archiving – depending on the intensity, complexity, time pressure and required accuracy of the work. If you are unable to vary your work sufficiently, please consult your immediate manager.

Take the 5 work rules into account!

Do not underestimate working with monitors. It is really intensive work that could lead to health problems in neck, shoulders, arms or hands. If problems occur, there may be one or several aspects of the work situation (the 5 work rules) that have not been taken into account sufficiently. It concerns:

1. Work hours
+ Do not work with a monitor for more than 6 hours per day.
+ After working with a monitor for a maximum of 2 hours, take a 10 minute break or perform other work. You can also introduce a short 20 second break (every 10 minutes).
+ In order to improve the blood circulation in the muscles, you could do exercises during these short breaks.
+ More exercise really helps! Go for an occasional short walk. Use the stairs instead of the elevator. Pay a visit to someone instead of calling him.
+ Drink lots of water. This is good for processing waste products, and you will also have to go to the bathroom more often.

2. Work tasks
+ Organise your work in such a way that monitor work is regularly interrupted by other work for which you have to move. A tip: spread copying and printing work over your work day, so that you will walk more often.
+ Get your own coffee and pay a visit to a colleague instead of phoning him.

3. Work pressure
+ Spread monitor work as evenly as possible over you work day and work week; exceed deadlines that are hard to achieve in consultation and do not immediately bind yourself to them
+ Discuss structural work pressure with your immediate manager.
+ Continue to work calmly and efficiently, even when under pressure.

4. Work method
+ Sit up straight and close to the desktop, so that you can support your arms on the armrests of your chair when typing or using your mouse.
+ Change your work posture regularly, this will improve the circulation of blood in your muscles.
+ Take sufficient breaks and allow you body to rest.

5. Workplace
+ Pay attention to the furnishing of your workplace and provide a good set-up of your workplace.
+ Place the monitor as far away from the window as possible, perpendicular towards the window and parallel to lighting fittings.
+ Limit the use of laptops or notebooks. This type of equipment is designed to be worked with for a maximum of 2 hours per day.
+ Seek good advice when purchasing aids.

Adjust your chair to the correct height

+ Place your chair at the lowest position and stand in front of the chair. Adjust the chair in such a way, that the seat is just below your kneecap. Sit and check whether your upper legs are horizontal; your feet should be flat on the ground.
+ Make sure you are sitting straight properly and that the seat is used as much as possible; if necessary move the seat or the backrest. Provide a fist wide intermediate space between the hollow of the knee and the front of the seat.
+ Loosen the backrest and choose the position whereby the bulge of the backrest fits in the hollow of your back. Then fasten the backrest.
+ Now keep your lower arms horizontal and relax your shoulders. Adjust the armrests to this height. Make sure you do not pull up your shoulders.

Adjust the desktop to the correct height.

+ When working with a monitor, you should preferably set the desktop a little lower than the armrests of your chair.
+ Check first whether you are able to adjust the desktop to the correct height. A desktop that is used for reading and writing may be 5 cm higher than the chair's armrests.
+ If this is not possible and you are sitting too low, you can raise the chair and use a foot support.
+ If this is not possible and you are sitting too high, you can raise the desktop, e.g. by means of bobbins.

Place the monitor correctly

+ Prevent mirroring and place your monitor approximately 1.5 metres from the window and parallel to the lighting fittings.
+ Do not place the monitor in front of the window; the contrast is often too great, as a result of which your eyes tire more quickly. If outdoor light interferes, use shading.
+ Place the monitor, keyboard and items that you are working with in front of you.
+ Take into account a distance of 50 cm (14 inch screen) to 70 cm (19 inch screen) between the eyes and the monitor.
+ Place the monitor at such a height that the top of the glass of the monitor is at the same height as your eyes or a little lower..

+ Make sure that no bright light is shining in your eyes.
+ Do not place the monitor directly below lighting fittings, but between the rows.
+ Properly set the clarity and contrast of your monitor.
+ Preferably use black letters on a white background.

How to work with a laptop

+ Use a laptop support, an external keyboard and an additional mouse or other tool if you use the laptop for more than 2 hours per day.

Document holder

A document holder ensures that the document containing the data to be entered and the monitor are at the same distance. In this way you will prevent tired eyes, a lot of bending and twisting with your neck and prevent neck and shoulder problems.

Lighting

Normal workplace lighting (200-800 lux) will usually not cause problems when working with a monitor. The lighting should not be mirrored or visible in the monitor.

4.2 Working with approved tools

In installation engineering, many types of production tools are used. You could think of (electric) hand tools, portable climbing materials, hoisting tools, welding equipment and machine tools. All these items must meet HSE requirements. You must also use and maintain them correctly; in this way you will prevent accidents.

CE marks

On the grounds of the working conditions legislation, production tools must meet technical design and construction requirements. The manufacturer must provide them with the CE mark (which is a so-called conformity mark). If the CE mark is attached to the tool, you may assume that it meets the legal requirements.

CE mark

Correct use prevents accidents

The user of production means and/or tools is responsible for the correct usage of these items:
+ If you are unfamiliar with a tool, always read the user manual first. If you cannot find the user manual, please ask for it.
+ So make sure you know how it works before you start using it. Often reading the user manual will be enough, but sometimes you will have to attend special training. In addition to user instructions, the manual usually also contains guidelines on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). On many locations it is normal to indicate which PPE to wear by means of symbols on the tools.
+ When you receive the tool or want to start working with it, you must first check it. Check whether the inspection date has expired. Inspect the tool: does it seem safe on first sight? What you should look at, for instance, is the connection of the cord, possible damages to the housing and the presence of safety provisions. Report deviations on the tool to the tool administrator or workplace management.

Incorrect use of hand tools

A lot of accidents occur when using hand tools, due to the fact that the tool is not used correctly. For instance, someone uses a screwdriver as a crowbar or tries to use an open-end wrench as a hammer. In this way the tool will get damaged, as a result of which accidents might happen.

Example of an approval sticker

Inspection of tools

The inspection of tools is bound to (legal) inspection requirements. Usually test results are stated in a register, so it can be checked on which date the inspection was carried out for each item. For a number of tools, such as lifting and hoisting equipment, this is required by law, and an approval label will have to be attached to the tool. The label will show you that the tool meets the test requirements and when it has to be inspected again. Do not use tools of which the test date has expired.

Use hand tools correctly, store them well, maintain them regularly and check for defects.

4.3 Working with electric hand tools

Before you start working with electric hand tools, you will first have to know how they work. When using these tools, always observe the safety measures.
What you should also keep in mind:
+ Prevent overloading: as a result of overloading the electric motor will burn. So for heavier work, please use different or heavier tools.
+ Fully unwind the reel of an extension cable: in case of prolonged use and high power, a partially wound reel may start to burn.
+ Be careful with the connecting cable: do not use the cable to lift the tool. Protect the cable against heat, oil and sharp objects. Remove the plug from the wall socket (do not pull the cord) once you stopped using the tool.
+ Connect the tool to an installation that is provided with an earth leakage circuit breaker: this also applies to other electrical appliances at work. The earth leakage circuit breaker is a safeguard that will make sure the electric installation is switched off immediately in case of a malfunction. Mobile switch boxes on the building site are usually provided with an earth leakage circuit breaker.
+ Clamp the work piece: if possible, use tensioning elements, such as a vice or an adjustable work table.
+ Before switching on, check whether you removed tool keys or auxiliary tools, such as chuck keys and tensioning keys.
+ Clear electrical hand tools immediately after use.
+ Maintain the tool well. Make sure the tool is clean and carefully observe the maintenance instructions and recommendations.
+ Replace worn tools in time.

Tests, inspections and maintenance

It is the employer's obligation to have all electrical tools tested regularly. It is also important that he or she sets up an inspection and maintenance system, which states the inspection results, amongst other things. The requirements for inspection and maintenance can be found in the NEN 3140 standard.

What you should do prior to use

+ Check the electrical tool:

  • The housing, the connecting cable and the plug should not be damaged.
  • The connections must work properly. The hand tool should not switch on and off when moving the cable.
  • Check the entry of the cord or cable and make sure the cable does not protrude from the pull relief.
  • The ON/OFF switch and/or safeguards must work properly.
  • The tool may not be wet, greasy or dirty.
  • The tool should not create excessive sparks or vibrations.
  • The tool should not make deviating sounds.
  • The test date should not be expired. More and more, tools are provided with a label stating the test date or repeat test date.
+ Take influences from the surrounding area into account and do not use electrical tools:
  • in a humid or wet environment;
  • near flammable fluids;
  • in a room with a gas or dust explosion hazard.
+ Use the correct personal protective equipment (PPE).
Wear the correct work clothes and make sure these remain clean and undamaged. In case of activities where dust is created, use a dust mask or dust extraction. Wear safety or wide view goggles and hearing protection when grinding, drilling, sawing, etc.

4.4 Working at heights

When working at heights, you will run the risk of falling. The consequences could be serious, that is why the Working Conditions Act contains strict rules for working at heights. According to the Working Conditions Act, working at heights means: working at a height of 2.5 metres or higher, or working at lower heights at a location where there are obstacles, protruding parts and such like. In those cases you will have to take precautions and observe strict rules. In this way you will prevent yourself from falling and from suffering severe injuries.
In this section you will find information on working safely at heights and the safe use of resources such as ladders, stairs, (mobile) scaffolds, elevating work platforms and safety cages and personal fall-arrest equipment.

Roof edge protection system for flat roofs

The topic ‘Working safely at heights’ is included in the Health and Safety Catalogue for the installation and insulation industry. Keep into account that clients, usually in industry, may apply more strict and deviating rules for working at heights than stated in this Health and Safety Catalogue.

Working safely on roofs

If you work on a roof, you are required to take various precautions and observe the following rules:
+ Do not work at a wind force of 6 or higher.
+ Do not work during storms or in case of a threatening storm.
+ Surfaces must be clean and rough. Watch out for slipperiness as a result of algae, moss on tiles, wetness, ice and snow or loose gravel.
+ Only use approved and well maintained climbing materials.
+ Stay on the specially laid out walking routes.
+ Fully cover the recesses in the roof surface with sufficiently sturdy material. Demarcate recesses with a sufficiently sturdy fence, i.e. do not use tape.
+ Prevent loose components or materials on the roof surface from sliding or being whipped up by the wind.
+ Preferably use mechanical resources to transport materials and tools, such as a crane or a goods lift.

The type of safeguarding to be applied on roofs depends on four factors:
1. The type and duration of the work.
2. The distance to the roof edge (less than 4 metres).
3. The type of roof: flat or sloping.
4. The type of roof covering, e.g. a slate roof or thatched roof in case of old buildings, churches or residential houses.

For your safety you are able to use:

+ a sufficiently sturdily constructed roof edge protection; the height at the roof edge should be at least 1 metre;
+ an existing, permanent construction, e.g. a parapet of at least 1 metre high;
+ a permanent scaffold, protruding scaffold or mobile scaffold.
In the work area between the roof edge and 2 metres from the roof edge, a hard enclosure will have to be used along the roof edge. In the work area between 2 metres and 4 metres of the roof edge, the work area must be enclosed at the 2 metre border. For this you are allowed to use a chain or tape. No fences or edge safeguards have to be applied on flat roofs, if the work is performed at more than 4 metres from the roof edge and the work area and the path to the work area are clearly marked with indelible and clearly recognisable lines.

What you should be aware of:

A roof edge safeguard by means of a permanent or temporary fence of at least 4 metres wide and 1 metre high is obligatory if:
+ the roof can only be reached via the outside of the building, e.g. via a ladder placed against the façade;
+ the access to the roof, e.g. via a stairwell, ends up at less than 2 metres from the roof edge.
A second access to the roof is required if there is a risk that the access is no longer within reach in case of fire.

The work situation must be assessed in advance, so that the safety measures to be applied can be chosen in a responsible manner. The assessment may lead to the conclusion that applying the roof edge safeguard itself poses a greater risk than the activities to be performed. You could think of short inspection, installation or maintenance work performed by a limited number of persons (1 or 2 persons). In that case you will have to use personal fall- arrest equipment. If you use personal fall-arrest equipment, do seek out a good and safe attachment point.

Working on dormers

The rules for working on dormers are the same as those for working on roofs. So in this case you will also have to assess which specific fall safety measures are required. For short activities, as described above, you may use personal fall-arrest equipment. Specific scaffolds and scaffold accessories are available for the benefit of working on dormers.

Working on bridges, viaducts and in technical installations

In many work situation on bridges, viaducts and in technical installations in industry and (petro)chemical industry, you also run the risk of falling from a height of more than 2.5 metres. In that case, precautions will also have to be taken in order to exclude that risk. In principle, the same rules apply as for working on roofs.

Ladders and stairs

A ladder is really a climbing tool. However, in some cases, ladders and stairs are also used as a workplace. Often, installation components are difficult to reach, due to the fact that the workplace is insufficiently large. For example, in corridors, already furnished building sections, technical rooms, shafts and/ or between accessories in factories in different industries. As a result, the deployment of (mobile) scaffolds or elevating work platforms is technically impossible.

When working at heights, the work planner and/or manager should check which resource, such as a ladder, mobile scaffold or elevating work platform, could best be used. He should also assess whether health and safety are compromised during the performance of the work. He should also minimise the risk of slipping or falling over.

Whether or not a ladder is used depends on the standing height, the duration (scope) of the work and the type of work to be performed. On the grounds of the 'Resource selection assessment'(It can be found on the website of the Health and Safety Catalogue for the Installation and Insulation Industry, topic 'Working at heights.') it is possible that the risk of falling when using a (mobile) scaffold is estimated higher than when using a ladder. This is due to the fact that the assembly and disassembly time for a scaffold takes longer than the ladder's deployment time.

Resource selection

A ladder (stair) can be used as a workplace at a standing height of 2.5 to 5 metres. At a standing height from 5 to 7.5 metres it will have to be considered whether it is not possible to use a different (safer) resource. At a standing height of more than 7.5 metres, the use of a ladder as a workplace is not allowed.

The application of force when working on a ladder should also be limited. At an application of force between 50 and 100 N (10 Newton=1kg), it will have to be considered whether it is not possible to use a different (safer) resource. At an application of force of more than 100 N, the use of a ladder is not permitted.

You should avoid working on a ladder for a long period of time. For short activities (less than 2 hours), it will be possible to use a ladder. If the work takes 2 to 4 hours, it should be considered whether the work cannot be performed in a different manner. If the activities take longer than 4 hours, the use of a ladder is not permitted.

Perhaps a mobile scaffold would be better?

How to set up a ladder (stair) safely

+ Never place a ladder on a sloping surface, a soft uneven or slippery underground, a table or chest.
+ Never place a ladder the wrong way around or upside down.
+ Do not place a ladder directly against a window. If it is only possible to place the ladder against the window, you should use cross bars.
+ If you place a ladder in front of a door, you should lock the door or block the passage.
+ If necessary, demarcate the access with warning fences.
+ Never place metal ladders near live blank components. Keep a minimum distance of 2 metres or use an insulated ladder (wood or plastic).
+ Place the ladder at an angle of approximately 75 degrees. In order to check whether the ladder has the correct angle, place your toes against the bottom side and stretch your arms straight in front of you. It should be possible to grab the ladder with your hands.
+ Make sure the ladder does not fall or glide away at the bottom. If necessary, provide your ladder with a stability bar.
+ Secure the ladder at the top against sliding to the side. If necessary, secure the ladder with a rope.
+ Make sure the ladder protrudes at least 1 metre above the location that you want to access; in that way you will have sufficient support to step off safely.

How to use a ladder (stair) safely

+ Never use a ladder at a wind force of 6 or higher or during a storm.
+ Always climb a ladder wearing safety shoes.
+ Keep the rungs and the ladder feet clean. Do not climb the ladder with slippery or dirty soles.
+ Climb the ladder with your face towards the ladder and hold on to the rungs of the ladder with both hands..
+ Hoist materials and tools upwards with a rope.
+ Keep the area in front of the ladder free from obstacles, etc.
+ Never reach further away from the ladder than one arm's length and never stand with one foot on, for instance, a window frame or sill. Due to the movement of weight, the ladder may start to slide.
+ Never climb a ladder (without platform) higher than the fourth step from above..
+ Never leave a ladder without supervision, due to playing children.

How to check a ladder or stair

+ Check the ladder/stair after you received it and prior to each use.
+ Check all components prior to use. Check the quality of the connections, rungs and stiles, ladder feet, pull rope, etc.
+ Never use damaged or broken climbing materials.
+ If the climbing material is not in good order, report this to the person who is responsible for this.
+ Check whether the ladder/stair has been approved.

Fixed scaffolds

In case of extensive work at height, fixed metal (steel, aluminium) scaffolds are often used, which are assembled under the supervision of an expert. In case of hazards in relation to conductance, electrocution, sparks and explosion (in an ATEX environment - ATmosphères EXplosives), the scaffold will also be earthed. The expert will check the safety of the scaffold prior to first use. Then, he will check it at least every three months, after each change to the scaffold and after special weather conditions such as storms. Once the scaffold has been determined as safe, a special scaffold card or label (preferably) is attached to the scaffold. This shows you that you are allowed to work on the scaffold.
If scaffolds are used for the construction of a building, they should meet a number of requirements:
+ The distance between the scaffold floor and the underside of the roof or gutter may not be more than 1.5 metres.
+ The railing of the scaffold should protrude 1 metre above the roof edge or gutter.
+ On the work floors you are not allowed to work with ladders or stairs.
+ The scaffolds may only be removed once the work at the roof edge or the sloping roof has been completed.

Mobile scaffolds

Mobile scaffolds are mainly used for short work activities at height. Assembly and use are not without risks. These risks can be reduced if proper materials are used, the mobile scaffold is assembled and checked by an expert, and the users are properly instructed.

Tips for assembly

+ Assemble the mobile scaffold in accordance with the supplied instructions.
+ Assemble the mobile scaffold on a flat and properly bearing underground.
+ Do not place the mobile scaffold near overhead electricity cables, unless measures have been taken to prevent contact with live components.
+ If you use the mobile scaffold outdoors, you should fasten the mobile scaffold to the building or another structure where possible (particularly in case of strong winds).
+ Prevent collisions; for instance, place fences or cones, or block drive lanes.
+ Make sure the work floors are fully closed and tight, so they cannot slide or be blown up by the wind.
+ Do not fasten hoisting equipment to a mobile scaffold and do not use hoisting equipment from a mobile scaffold, unless the manufacturer indicates differently.
+ Prior to use, check whether:
- the scaffold material is in order; if not, contact the person or department assigned for that purpose;
- top and intermediate handrails have been applied around the floors;
- toe boards have been placed around the work floor.
- the mobile scaffold has been approved.

How to use a mobile scaffold safely

+ Block the wheels.
+ Climb on the mobile scaffold via the inside of the frame.
+ Close the floor hatches after entering the work floor.
+ Use the work floor of the mobile scaffold as little as possible for the storage of materials. For instance, a mobile scaffold is not suitable for the storage of masonry materials.
+ Do not allow cables and hoses to hang freely, but attach them properly. This will reduce the risk of falling.
+ On the work floor, do not stand on a chest, stair or other resource to increase your work height.
+ Ensure that the mobile scaffold does not become an object that children can play with after work.
+ Fasten the top of mobile scaffolds that are used outdoors to the building or another structure.
+ The mobile scaffold may not be moved when there are still people standing on it.

Elevating work platforms

If you must perform work at different heights in a short period of time, an elevating work platform is usually a better resource than a (mobile) scaffold. Elevating work platforms are available in many types and versions. You are only allowed to use them if you are sufficiently instructed concerning their use and are familiar with the hazards. Some clients demand specific training. The manual should be supplied with the elevating work platform. The elevating work platforms should be tested at least once per year. Preferably, a test label is attached to the elevating work platform, so that the test can be checked.

How to use an elevating work platform safely

+ Make sure you are sufficiently instructed or trained, if necessary.
+ Before using the elevating work platform, check whether the test documents or test label are in order.
+ Place enclosures if there is a risk of collision or falling materials within the range of the elevating work platform.
+ Do not raise the work floor, for instance with a chest or stair.
+ Do not use elevating work platforms at a wind force of 6 or higher; observe the instructions provided by the manufacturer or supplier. Depending on make or type, it is possible that use is even not allowed at a wind force lower than 6.
+ Do not use the elevating work platform as a lift.
+ Getting on or off at a height is not permitted.
+ Use a harness belt with a short line.

Safety cages

For brief activities at hard to reach places you can use an approved safety cage attached to a crane. This method of working is bound to strict conditions. These relate to both the safety cage and the crane from which the cage is suspended.

Rules for safe usage

+ The safety cage must be approved.
+ The people in the safety cage and the crane operator must be able to see each other or to communicate with each other using a walkie-talkie.
+ In the safety cage you must wear a harness belt that is attached to an attachment point in the safety cage.
+ At a wind force of more than 6, you are not allowed to use the safety cage.
+ Prior to each use, check the safety cage, hoisting cable and load hook.
+ Do not raise the work floor by means of a chest or a ladder.
+ Do not use the safety cage for personal transportation.
+ Getting on and off at a height is not permitted.
+ A user manual must be available with the safety cage, indicating, amongst other things, how and under which conditions the safety cage may be used.

Personal fall-arrest equipment

Sometimes, the use of scaffolds or elevating work platforms is not possible or feasible. You could think of brief inspection activities on roofs. In that case you will have to use personal fall-arrest equipment, such as a harness belt. Fall-arrest equipment should be tested at least once per year; depending on use, more tests may be required.

Tips for safe usage

+ Preferably use a harness belt with a fall/shock damper.(Check the minimum height that is required to allow a fall/shock damper to work.) The leg and shoulder belts will equally distribute the forces that occur during a fall over the body.
+ Make sure the harness belt fits properly; a belt that is too wide-fitting will provide insufficient protection. + Attach the harness belt to a sturdy, fixed anchor point that is able to bear sufficient weight. Anchoring can take place in various ways.
+ Seek good advice from an expert concerning use and the method of attachment and anchoring.
+ Once fall-arrest equipment has been used to break a fall, you should return the complete fall-arrest system (harness belt, lines, etc.) to the supplier for inspection.

4.5 The transportation of materials

Transportation is a specialised profession and requires specific know-how. So, it might be advisable to use a specialised company. If you do decide to deal with this internally, great care is required. A proper preparation of the work will be necessary. The employer must provide a Risk Inventory and Evaluation (RI&E). Based on the result, he will have to take the necessary management measures. (Mobile) cranes and motorised transportation means may only be operated by employees who have specific expertise in this field (in the petrochemical industry they must often be certified).

Vertical and horizontal transport

Loads are usually transported with a transport vehicle, such as a hoisting crane, overhead crane, hoist, forklift truck or hand truck. Loads can be transported horizontally and/or vertically.

Points of attention in case of vertical transport (hoisting)

+ Check whether the hoisting gear, such as chains and hoisting belts, are provided with certificates and are properly maintained. The certificates should be stored in a safe place. Hoisting gear that is worn or of which the certificate has expired may not be used.
+ Use chains with good end links.
+ Only use hoisting belts, fasteners and packagings that were specially designed for hoisting.
+ Never deviate from the manufacturer's instructions.
+ Provide good communication between the crane operator and the person attaching or releasing the load. They must be able to see each other or use walkie-talkies.
+ On site, only one person will communicate with the operator. This person is able to provide good instructions and should be an expert in the safe movement of loads.
+ Never exceed the maximum allowed load of the hoisting gear.
+ Safeguards and limits may never be bypassed or adapted. Provide an enclosure under the load to be hoisted and keep sufficient distance yourself when hoisting.
+ Never stand under the load, you are allowed to stand under the mast.
+ When hoisting, the hoisting cables should be in a vertical position.
+ The outer angle may not be more than 60 degrees (inner angle 120 degrees). The forces during hoisting depend on the angle of the attachment points of the hoisting gear and the crane hook.
+ Do not place loose objects on an attached load.
+ Stop the hoisting activities:
- at a wind force above 6, or lower if prescribed by the manufacturer;
- in case of a lower wind force, as soon as the hoisting table of the crane indicates this;
- if the load can no longer be steered and controlled due to the hard wind;
- in case of a threatening storm (10 seconds or less between thunder and lightning).

Points of attention in case of horizontal transport

+ Only use resources that were specially constructed for this type of transport, such as rollers, flatbed trailers, hand trucks, threshold ramps and forklift trucks.
+ Never exceed the maximum allowed load of the lifting gear.
+ Use the correct resources and make sure they are in a good condition.
+ Prevent components from moving unexpectedly or prevent objects, products or fluids from being released.
+ Use hazard signs or enclosures to prevent collisions.
+ Make sure someone keeps an eye on the other traffic and pedestrians on the site, if the driver has insufficient view. This particularly applies when accessing or leaving the work site.

4.6 Working on electrical installations

Rules have been established for working on and near electrical installations. These rules are described in legislation (the Working Conditions Decree), the standards NEN 3140 (low voltage) and NEN 3840((high voltage) and the Health and Safety Catalogue for the Installation and Insulation Industry, topic 'Working with/without voltage'. The latter clearly describes what to observe and how to act.

Important terms from NEN 3140

In various documents that you are going to deal with, terms from different publications will be used. The most common and important terms are shown in the following pages. For a further explanation we would like to refer you to the Working Conditions Act, NEN 3140 v 2011 and the Health and Safety Catalogue for the installation and insulation industry, 'Working with/ without voltage'.

Hoisting instructions

Application area:

this standard applies to electrical installations and electrical resources with a nominal voltage of maximum 1,000V alternating voltage and 1,500V direct voltage. NEN 3840 applies to higher voltages. The standard also applies to temporary installations, whether or not mobile.

Electrical installation:

composition of all electric equipment for the generation, transportation, conversion, distribution and use of electric energy, including sources of stored energy such as batteries and capacitators.

Operation:

management, including all electrical and non-electrical work, necessary to allow the electrical installation to work, such as switching, regulating, monitoring and maintaining.

Electrical hazard:

possibility of injury or damage to health, caused by electricity (e.g. through contact, fire, explosion, electromagnetic fields and forces, unintentional activation and deactivation and electric arcs).

Does your job bring enlightenment as well?

Live part:

conductor or conductive part that should be under voltage during normal operation, including the neutral conductor, but - according to agreement - not a PEN, PEM or PEL conductor.

Person responsible for the work:

person assigned as immediate responsible person for the safety of the work activities.

Person responsible for the installation:

person assigned as immediate responsible person for the safe operation of the electrical installation and the safety of the electrical resources.

Competent person:

assigned person with relevant training and experience, making him/her able to recognise and prevent hazards that could be caused by electricity.

Sufficiently trained person:

person assigned and sufficiently instructed for specific tasks, work activities and the use of electrical resources, making him/ her able to recognise and prevent hazards that could be caused by electricity.

Hazard zone:

limited space around live parts.

Work activities:

any form of electrical or non-electrical activities that could involve electrical hazards.

Electrical work activities:

activities at, with or near an electrical installation, such as testing, measuring, repairing, replacing, adapting, extending, installing and inspecting.

Non-electrical work activities:

activities near an electrical installations, such as building, excavating, cleaning and painting.

Working under voltage:

all activities whereby a person may make contact with live parts or end up in the hazard zone with parts of his body, tools, equipment or (personal) protective equipment. The application of guards is not included here, provided this can be done without risk.

Voltage free:

voltage value of (virtually) 0 V, i.e. without any voltage and/or charge present.

Working voltage free:

activities at an electrical installation without voltage or charge and which are performed after all measures to prevent electrical hazards have been taken.

Hazards and risks

Working with electricity involves hazards. There is a hazard of making contact, as well as fire and explosion. There is also a hazard of accidents, due to the fact that you will be startled by the electric current running through your body.

The hazard of being under voltage is that a current may flow through your body. The magnitude of this current is determined by the (body's) resistance. The duration of contact is also important. Perspiration and rain will reduce the resistance in the body, as a result of which a higher current may go through the body.

In case of a short-circuit, a lot of energy may be released in the form of an electric arc. This electric arc could cause (very severe) burns or fire.

Electricity may also cause so-called secondary accidents. Someone is standing on a ladder or stair, gets an electric shock, startles and falls. The electric shock does not have to be severe, but the reaction to it causes the accident.

Classification of voltages

+ High voltage is a voltage of which the nominal value is higher than 1000V at alternating voltage and 1500V at direct voltage.
+ Low voltage is a voltage of which the nominal value is not higher than 1000V at alternating voltage and 1500V at direct voltage.
+ Very low voltage is a voltage of which the nominal value is not higher than 50V at alternating voltage and 120V at direct voltage. Here, we will speak of a 'safe voltage'.

Caution:
However, a 'safe voltage' may also cause a secondary accident, the consequences of which can be serious.

Symbols on electrical equipment in relation to insulation

Five golden safety measures

Observe the five golden rules for working with electricity:
1. Switching off
In order to perform work at an electrical installation, the voltage is switched off prior to starting the work. Switching off may only be performed by an authorised person who is correctly qualified and sufficiently trained in electrical engineering (assigned according to NEN 3140).
Inform the users of the installation in advance, because damage or a hazardous situation may be created if the installation is switched off unexpectedly. The section of the installation where the work is performed must be disconnected from all sources of power supply.
Switch off the group switch. If this is not possible, remove the safety devices. The safety devices may only be removed once all consuming appliances have been switched off. If you have to draw fuses for this, you must apply fuse safety handles with permanently applied, long safety covers. Wear a face mask during these activities

2. Safeguards
Make sure that nobody is able to switch the installation on again unexpectedly. Lock out the main switch with a padlock or block- ing rod as much as possible. It is possible to apply several locks on blocking rods (each with their own lock). Always apply the instruction “do not switch on” to the locked out power switch. Also after the safety devices have been removed, you need to take measures to prevent unexpected activation. For instance, apply blind fuses or screw in blocking elements at the screw cartridges.

Safeguards against activation can be used for electrical switches, but cranes and valves can also be protected against unintentional opening.

3. Checks
Prior to starting the work, check whether the installation has indeed been switched off and made voltage free. For this, use an approved, double pole voltage indicator (NEN3140), e.g. a Duspol, and act as if you are working under voltage. Before and after the measurement, always check whether the voltage indicator is working. In this way you will be certain that the installation is free from voltage. The use of a voltage detector is NOT allowed.

4. Earthing and short-circuiting
Make sure the uninsulated parts at or near the location where you will be working are earthed and mutually short-circuited. In case of installations with nominal voltages up to 1,000V, earthing and short-circuiting is not necessary, unless:
1. it involves outdoor lines;
2. there is a risk that the installation will start to carry voltage, e.g. as a result of an emergency power generator.

Earthing and short-circuiting are always recommended, as it offers the greatest safety. Do make sure that earthing does not involve more risks than the work that you are supposed to perform. Have a person responsible for the work assess this.

Caution:
Connect short-circuit connections to earth first and only then earth with the installation part.

5. Guarding
Guard the sections that are still under voltage or could become under voltage. Guarding should result in a situation where you cannot make contact with these sections by accident.

Working with voltage

Working with voltage means that you are performing work at or near uninsulated, live sections. Virtually no situation allows the performance of work with voltage. Only in highly incidental situations you are allowed to work with voltage, and in such a case the following conditions will have to be met first:
+ The urgent need of the work has been proven by the client.
+ The person responsible for the work has given an explicit and written order to perform the work. The person responsible for the installation must have given written permission to the person responsible for the work
+ The installation is suitable for the performance of work with voltage.
+ The work is performed by skilled or sufficiently trained persons that have been specifically educated, trained and authorised (assigned according to NEN 3140) for this purpose.
+ It has been proven that there is no risk of fire or explosion.
+ The following measures have been taken to perform the work safely:
- Near the location where work will be performed, all active parts have been guarded against accidental contact, e.g. by means of insulating plates or bibs.
- The employees are in an insulated position. This means that they are wearing approved rubber boots and that they are standing on rubber mats or plates.
- The employees are not wearing any high-risk metal objects, such as jewellery.
- The employees wear PPE: rubber boots, rubber gloves, a face mask and flame retardant clothes.

Switching on

First clear the workplace and remove tools, resources, residual materials, etc. Remove earthing in opposite order of application, temporary guards and warning signs. The locks on the power switch or blocking rods may only be removed by the person who applied them. Make sure everyone leaves the workplace, unless they have an urgent reason to stay there. Make sure that on-one else is still performing work. Then inform the users. Only then will you be able to switch the installation on again.

Switching on may only be performed by a correctly qualified person with sufficient knowledge of electrical engineering (assigned according to NEN 3140).

Responsibilities and competences

In standard sheet NEN 3140 for low voltage installations, conditions have been included concerning education, experience, responsibilities and competences.

Requirements in relation to training and experience apply to:
+ person responsible for the installation
+ person responsible for the work
+ competent person
+ sufficiently trained person.
The employer should assign these persons in writing.
The responsibilities and competences are particularly aimed at:
+ performance and coordination of work and taking safety measures;
+ responsibility for the safety of internal employees and third party employees;
+ supervising the observance of safety rules.
Temporary workers performing electrical work must be assigned by the employer in writing as well.

4.7 Working with hazardous substances

We encounter hazardous substances everywhere. We are simply unable to avoid them in our daily life and at work. This section provides information for safely handling hazardous substances at work.
Hazardous substances have one or more of the following characteristics:
1. They are flammable or explosive.
2. They are corrosive or irritating.
3. They are harmful to your health in the short or longer term.
4. Combined with other substances a hazardous reaction is created.

Hazards to humans

A substance is hazardous if - in the short or longer term - it is harmful to the health of humans. A hazardous substance can occur as a solid, fluid, gas or mist. The route of entry into the body can take place through inhaling (inhalation), swallowing (ingestion) and via the skin or the eyes (absorption and/or injection). Exposure to a higher concentration of a hazardous substance usually leads to acute poisoning. In case of acute poisoning the consequences can be noticed immediately, or within a few hours to a few days.

Chronic poisoning is the result of long-term exposure to a hazardous substance, usually in a low concentration. In case of chronic poisoning it may take years before the symptoms become apparent. Often irreparable harm has been done, you could think of the effect of carcinogenic substances.

The harmful effect of solvents has been proven beyond doubt. Also in case of low concentrations, long-term exposure to solvents will damage the nervous system. This results in a range of complaints, also referred to as Organic Psycho Syndrome (OPS). People with OPS may suffer from concentration problems or poor memory and may have a perceptual disorder.

How to recognise a hazardous substance

+ At some companies they attach hazard diamonds (signage) to reservoirs and (storage) tanks. This will allow you to determine quickly which hazards could occur in case of an accident (leak) or fire.
+ Pay attention to the hazard symbol on the packaging of hazardous substances; this symbol indicates the type of hazard. According to aEuropean directive, producers, suppliers or importers are obliged to display this symbol on the label. They are also obliged to supply product safety information.
+ If you are dealing with unpackaged hazardous substances, please read the safety information on the chemical chart or ask for more information.

H statements (R statements)

International agreements have been made to indicate the health risks of hazardous substances. These risks are indicated by means of the H statements (H = Hazard). Previously these risks were indicated by means of R statements (R = Risk), which you can still encounter today.

Examples of hazard indications: H222 Extremely flammable aerosol, hazard category 1 "Very lightly flammable aerosol."
H314 Skin corrosion/irritation, hazard categories 1A, 1B and 1C "Causes severe skin burns."
H410 Chronic hazard to the aquatic environment, hazard category 1 "Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects."

P statements (S statements)

The international agreements also contain P statements (P = Precaution) to indicate the precautions that should be taken. These measures were previously indicated by means of S statements (S = Safe), which you can still encounter today.

Examples:
P103 "Read label before use."
P210 "Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. - No smoking."
P391 "Collect spillage."

Below you will find an overview of H statements (R statements) and P statements (S statements).

Type Intended for
R 24 Toxic in contact with skin
S7 Keep container tightly closed
R9 Explosive when mixed with combustible material
R 11 Highly flammable
S20 When using do not eat or drink
R 34 Causes burns
R 14 Reacts violently with water
S21 When using do not smoke
R 15 Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases

Examples of H and P statements

Old symbols


Explosive


Oxidising


Very highly flammable


Harmful


Corrosive


Toxic


Dangerous for the environment

Note: This is a display of existing and new symbols. This does not imply that existing classifications of chemical substances and compounds can be directly converted based on only the symbol. That would require a substantive assessment on the basis of criteria in annex I of EU-GHS.

New symbols


Explosive


Oxidising


Flammable


Irritating, sensitising, harmful


Corrosive
 
 


Toxic
 
 


Dangerous for the aquatic environment


Gases under pressure


Long term health hazard

How to work with hazardous substances in accordance with HSE principles

If there are hazardous substances on the workplace, it is important to know how to work with them in accordance with HSE principles. It would be practical to have a record of information on all hazardous substances that are present within the company. If you have any doubts concerning the safety precautions that should be taken, you can consult this record. Once you are properly informed and instructed, you will be able to recognise hazards and hazardous situations in time. This will reduce the risk of accidents. A lot of information on hazardous substances can be found on the label. The user instructions are at your disposal as well, which often contain additional HSE information as well. Read these instructions carefully prior to use. H and P statements (as well as R and S statements) on the label provide information and recommendations concerning the minimum safety precautions you should take.

How to store hazardous substances

A number of general rules of behaviour apply for the storage of hazardous substances:
+ Check the packaging and prevent leakage.
+ Store opened stocks in closed packages. Make sure you close the packaging well after it has been opened.
+ Only store hazardous substances in packaging intended for that purpose. Never pour substances in lemonade or beer bottles, for instance.
+ Preferably store hazardous substances behind lock and key in the original packaging, according to environmental regulations.

How to transport hazardous substances

Transporting hazardous substances is an expert job, particularly when larger volumes and certain transportation classes are involved. Strict requirements are imposed on both the vehicle and the driver. A driver transporting ‘hazardous substances’ must be in possession of special training qualifications. For available stocks ready to be used in projects, less strict rules apply. For each hazardous substance (hazard category), the amount that you are allowed to transport is limited. If you remain below these limits, no ADR obligations [The ADR is a regulation for the transportation of hazardous substances by road: ‘Accord Européen relatif au transport international des marchandises Dangereuses par Route’, or ‘European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road’.] apply. This means that no transportation documents are required as well. Of course, the product data sheets for the substances should be available in the vehicle. In short, a large number of risks are involved when transporting hazardous substances, making strict regulations necessary. Consultation with a prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) is absolutely essential.

Observe the following precautions

+ Know what is being transported, e.g. via HSE sheets and product data sheets.
+ Only take the substances that are strictly necessary.
+ In case of gas cylinders, remove the pressure regulators and other accessories before the cylinders are loaded in the vehicle, and provide the cylinders with a protective hood.
+ Make sure the stored material cannot fall, tilt or shift.
+ Make sure the vehicle is well ventilated.
+ Make sure a fire extinguishing agent is present (at least 2 kg of powder).
+ Do not smoke near the hazardous substances.

Unnoticed contact with hazardous substances

Sometimes you may come into contact with hazardous substances without knowing, e.g. because you cannot see them or because they are released during processing. You could think of substances that are released when degreasing a work piece, during machining, welding and cutting, soldering or pouring a cable sleeve. These risks can always be identified on a label or a warning sign. This is why it is so important to work in a safe, healthy, hygienic and environmentally sound manner at all times.

Do not be deceived...

Proceed as follows

+ Properly prepare you activities and know what you are doing.
+ By simply using a different product you can sometimes avoid risks.
One example is the application of a cooling lubricant when machining. Try using a product that does not create hazardous side products when it gets older.
+ Make sure there is proper ventilation or extraction.
+ When welding and cutting, various substances are released that can make you ill.
One of the most common illnesses is metal vapour fever, which particularly occurs when welding galvanised steel. Other perpetrators are chromium, the nickel in weld fumes and the substances released when welding coated material.
+ Make sure humans and the source are separated. This can be done by, for instance, mechanising the cleaning and soldering process for printed circuit boards.
+ Where required, or where source or spot extraction is not possible, use PPE.

4.8 Legionella on the workplace

Contamination with legionella bacteria may cause Legionnaires' disease. These bacteria live in water and are able to multiply quickly under certain conditions. In this way, a certain volume of bacteria (number of colony forming units (CFU)) is created that may pose a hazard. Contamination is only possible when inhaling very fine water droplets containing the legionella bacteria.

Legionnaires' disease occurs in various forms. In the light form you will suffer from light, flue-like symptoms for two to five days, such as fever, headache, muscular pain and coughing. This light form is not dangerous and requires no treatment. In case of the severe form you will quickly develop a headache, muscular pain and a sick feeling followed by pneumonia and high fever. In this case it is necessary to administer the correct antibiotics quickly. Each GP will be able to prescribe them. The sooner the treatment is started the better.

When legionella multiply quickly and become dangerous

Under certain conditions legionella bacteria can multiply in such a way that a situation occurs that is hazardous to health. This multiplication particularly occurs at a temperature between 25 and 50°C in mucous layers (biofilm) on the surfaces of installation components and reservoirs. Contamination is only possible if the contaminated water is vaporised and the tiny water droplets are inhaled. Water is vaporised, for instance, when showering, at fountains and particularly at open cooling towers, but also during certain operational processes, some forms of air humidification and air conditioning.

Did you know ...

+ that it is not possible to get Legionnaires' disease from drinking legionella contaminated water;
+ that the disease cannot be transferred from one person to the next;
+ that elderly and physically weak persons have a higher risk of contamination;
+ that you have a high risk of contamination if you smoke;
+ that 'strong healthy men' can also be contaminated in case of prolonged exposure.

Tips to prevent contamination

+ Check possible legionella sources (tap water, whirlpools, fountains, process water, solar boilers, and air conditioning and cooling towers) for contamination risks (ask for the risk analysis).
+ Be extra alert at 'dead' ends in water system installations and when biofilm is present. When emptying a central heating radiator there is no risk of contamination, as legionella bacteria require oxygen.
+ Prevent exposure to mist at all times, particularly in case of process water, air conditioning and cooling towers.
+ Work with water that is fresh and cold or that has been heated over 60 °C. If in doubt, flush the installation with hot water.
+ Ask your employer to contact the owner of the installations well in advance of performing work with process water at air conditioning installations and/or cooling towers. Together they can assess which risks exist and which measures should be taken.

The presence of legionella bacteria in water can and may only be established in qualified laboratories. If legionella bacteria are found in an installation(s), it is important to prevent contamination for yourself as well as others. Immediately report the situation to your direct manager or prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).

4.9 Hazardous fibres on the workplace

When working you can come into contact with various types of insulation materials. During renovation projects you will often find that these materials are 'hidden'. It often concerns asbestos or ceramic fibres. We know that asbestos and ceramic fibres can cause cancer. In this section we will discuss the major risks and provide safe working instructions for each risk.

Asbestos

In Europe it is legally prohibited to use and process asbestos since 1993. Before that time asbestos was widely used because of its good characteristics, for instance as insulation material on pipes and ceilings. When it was discovered that asbestos is a carcinogenic substance and poses a health hazard, the use of asbestos was reduced in Europe since the late seventies and eventually prohibited. Asbestos fibres may end up in the body by inhaling and swallowing them.

What to do when you encounter or expect to encounter suspect asbestos containing material

+ If you encounter suspect asbestos containing material you should immediately report this to your direct manager or prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).
+ If you encounter asbestos while performing your work and you could be exposed to asbestos fibres you should immediately stop your activities. You may only proceed with the work once it has been assessed by competent persons and deemed safe.
+ Never remove asbestos yourself [Unless the removal work mentioned at * on page 118 can actually be performed safely without exceeding the limit value.]. During dry demolition and removal of asbestos containing materials, fibres will be released. That is why only specialised companies are allowed to remove asbestos.
+ Do not machine asbestos in any way. No drilling or sawing; this is extremely dangerous and prohibited.

Specialised companies take special precautions when removing asbestos, such as:
+ Rooms are sealed and entry prohibited.
+ During the demolition work only the demolition workers are allowed to access the room.
+ After the asbestos containing material has been removed, the rooms are handed over free from dust. In this way, the spread of asbestos dust to other workplaces or rooms is prevented.

Asbestos inventory report

In case of demolition and removal work, a client (including a private client) should have an Asbestos Inventory Report (survey). In the Asbestos Inventory Report you can read whether there is asbestos in the building, where it was encountered and what type of asbestos it concerns.
This type of reports may only be drawn up by recognised consultancy agencies, these agencies have been accredited (e.g. SC-540 certification).

A room with asbestos containing material is closed and clearly marked. Asbestos remediation is a job for specialised companies.

Never start a job where demolition and removal work has to be performed without an Asbestos Inventory Report. In the Asbestos Inventory Report the agency also indicates a risk category; 1, 2 or 3 respectively. Once asbestos in a building has been designated with category 2 or higher, only certified asbestos remediation companies are allowed to perform the work. In case of risk category 1, an installation engineering company is allowed to perform the work under the following conditions [For all the conditions, see articles 4.44 to 4.47C of the Working Conditions Decree (Arbobesluit).]:
+ The concentration of asbestos dust in the air is kept as low as possible below the limit value (0.01 fibre per cubic centimetre, calculated over a reference period of eight hours) [The limit value was reduced in January 2014.].
+ Activities are reported to the local inspectorate (e.g. Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid)).
+ Air measurements have to be taken periodically in order to be able to establish the fibre concentrations.
+ Employees are trained to work with Risk Category 1 asbestos and attend refresher courses if necessary.
+ The asbestos containing material is packaged and disposed of correctly, according to the regulations.
+ After the work has been completed a visual inspection should take place. The employer decides who will perform the visual inspection. This can be an internal (trained) employee or an external expert.

* It is not necessary to draw up an Asbestos Inventory Report in case of the following activities [The complete list can be found in article 4.54B of the Working Conditions Decree (Arbobesluit).]:
+ Working on buildings or objects from after local legislation prohibition dates (e.g. 1994 in NL and 2000 in the UK), these are built without the use of asbestos.
+ Removing clamped asbestos containing plate materials located under a heating appliance.
+ Complete removal of heating appliances containing asbestos.
+ Removing asbestos containing gaskets from combustion engines.
+ Fully or partially removing asbestos containing gaskets or parts thereof from process installations or heating appliances with a nominal capacity of less than 2250 kilowatts.

Caution:
Even though there is no obligation to draw up an Asbestos Inventory Report for the activities mentioned above, you should always check whether these activities can take place safely and without exceeding the limit value.

Glass fibres, glass and mineral wool and ceramic fibres

Glass fibres, glass and mineral wool and ceramic fibres are used as replacements for asbestos.

Ceramic fibres are also classified as carcinogenic. The risks when processing or removing these fibres are comparable to the risks involved with white asbestos.

In case of new developments, renovation and demolition of buildings and constructions and during service and maintenance it is also possible to come into contact with glass fibres. The level of exposure depends on what these materials are used for. In case of intensive contact with glass fibres you can suffer from skin irritation and skin damage..

Which measures should you take?

+ Use (fluid tight) work gloves, a (disposable) overall preferably without pockets or collars/cuffs, safety boots and respiratory protection products.
+ When working with glass and mineral wool products we recommend using a P-2 grade dust mask (FP3 minimum in the UK).
If applicable, always contact the workplace management and/or prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).

A few more tips

+ Keep the workplace clean. Do not sweep up the dust but use a vacuum cleaner provided with HEPA filters that are able to hold the small dust particles as well. Dampening the floor also prevents dust rising as long as there is no chance of run off of hazardous materials.
+ Take off work clothes in a well-ventilated location. Rinse the skin with water, prior to washing. Only then use soap. In this way you are prevented from rubbing fibres into your skin.
+ Do not eat, smoke and drink at the workplace.
+ Activities with open fire (e.g. welding, burning, soldering) may not be performed in a disposable overall.

4.10 Working safely with refrigerants

Refrigerants play a major role in temperature control in refrigerators and freezers, but also when it comes to climate control in buildings. Most cooling systems contain synthetic refrigerants.
These are sometimes also referred to as:
+ CFC containing refrigerants, e.g. freon R12 and R502.
+ HCFC containing refrigerants, e.g. freon R22.
+ HFC containing refrigerants, e.g. freon R134A, R404A and R507.

These substances are hazardous to the environment, as they damage the ozone layer and contribute to the greenhouse effect. International agreements have been made concerning the reduction of these substances. In the Netherlands, the international agreements on stopping the production and reducing the use of CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs have been included in the environmental, F-gases and ozone legislation. In practice this means, amongst other things, that you must take into account technical requirements that have been imposed on cooling systems. It has also been determined that only recognised companies employing authorised technicians (F-gas) are allowed to perform work to cooling installations (with a compressor capacity of more than 500W). It should also be taken into account that the registration of refrigerants has been regulated. In this way, control on its use is guaranteed.

Hazards to humans

Most freons, if released in high concentrations, are able to displace the oxygen in the air. This could lead to suffocation with a possibly fatal outcome. If your skin makes contact with liquefied gases, injuries could occur as a result of freezing Substances like ammonia, propane and isobutane are increasingly used as refrigerants. These substances pose a fire hazard. If they are able to evaporate, they could easily reach the hazardous explosion limit. In addition, ammonia has an irritating effect on the eyes and airways and may be toxic when inhaled in higher concentrations.

How to work with refrigerants in accordance with HSE requirements

+ Make sure you are always familiar with the specific risks of the refrigerant that you are using, transporting or storing.
+ Make sure you have the product data sheets of these gases and observe the safety measures indicated on them.
+ Make sure you take the correct protective measures.
+ Provide sufficient ventilation and do not smoke.
+ When using gases like ammonia, always use the correct PPE. You could think of a face mask or eye protection (wide view goggles) combined with respiratory protection products (filter type K), protective clothes and cold insulating gloves. Information on this type of gloves can be provided by an expert or the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).
+ Always take into account the requirements that apply to the storage and transportation of gas cylinders (see section 4.16, page 138).

4.11 The hazards of quartz dust

Quartz is a substance that occurs naturally in rocks. Rock-like building materials such as concrete, brick and sandlime brick contain quartz to a greater or lesser degree. The amount of quartz in building materials differs strongly. Concrete contains 20-30% quartz dust, gypsum 0-4% and sandstone 50-90%. The large margins per building material can be partly explained by the fact that the composition of the raw materials may differ.

Quartz dust at work

The building materials themselves are not hazardous to your health, processing them can be. Demolition work and machining slots in concrete or a brick wall without extraction or water cooling will result in dust. The dust cloud is contaminated with a percentage of hazardous quartz. When drilling, the larger the hole and the more holes that are drilled in sequence, the greater the exposure. Cleaning activities after the job is an important cause of quartz dust. When sweeping, the limit value is immediately exceeded. In the long term, inhaling quartz dust may lead to lung problems.

Tips for working with quartz dust in a healthy manner

+ Try to make agreements with fellow contractors to prevent quartz production as much as possible, and if prevention is not possible, provide extraction.
+ Use extraction at source (use TNO approved machines).
+ Use (quartz) dust reducing resources for tools and equipment, such as grinding and drilling machines with water flushing or immediate dust extraction, if these are made available by your employer. Consider cutting.
+ Work with a well-maintained drilling machine and sharp drills and chisels. You will be able to work faster and there will be less dust.
+ Prevent unnecessary inhalation of quartz dust. Keep activities performed by you or a colleague that create (quartz) dust as far away as possible. Avoid spaces where others are performing work whereby (quartz) dust is created.
+ Use a (full face) dust mask with a P3 protection factor when you or others are performing unavoidable work whereby (quartz) dust is created, such as drilling, sweeping and chopping.
+ Keep the workplace clean, so that (quartz) dust does not repeatedly end up in the air.
+ Prior to sweeping, properly wet the dust, only rake up coarse waste or use a vacuum cleaner. Ensure that less (quartz) dust ends up in the air.
+ Ensure as much ventilation as possible, so that the (quartz) dust does not remain at the workplace, e.g. by performing ‘dusty’ work as much as possible when the room is not yet fully glazed or by working with opened windows.

Caution:
If you are unable to see a dust cloud, this does not necessarily mean that there is no quartz dust in the air. Drilling in porous soft material, for example, will create a lot more visible dust than when drilling in hard concrete, whereas the exposure to quartz dust is often many times greater with hard concrete.

4.12 Gas or dust explosion hazard

Under certain conditions, a gas or dust explosion hazard could occur anywhere. This hazard can be present in storage rooms, crawl spaces or boiler rooms of houses, shops and commercial premises, just as much as in and near (petro)chemical installations. At some projects, however, there is a high risk of explosions. Usually you will be able to seek advice from a prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official). This section will list a number of terms for working in spaces with explosion hazard.

Explosive substances

Explosive substances can be solid, fluid or gaseous. In residential houses, for example, you will find aerosols, paints, detergents and camping gas cylinders. Stocks in warehouses, workshops or shops can also contain explosive substances. Gas and oxygen cylinders in service or work vehicles are explosive as well. Take note of the hazard signs on packaging; these will indicate whether products contain substances that could lead to an explosion under certain conditions. The cause, effect and symptoms of an explosion can differ for each case.

Gas and dust explosions

A distinction is made between a gas explosion (explosive combustion of a gas/air mixture) and a dust explosion (explosive combustion of a dust/ air mixture). A dust explosion could occur with, for instance, sugar, cacao, flour and coal dust. A lot of dust may also circulate in a carpentry workshop. Hazardous concentrations may occur in installations and devices like mills, mixers and elevators. Dust settled on floors, construction components or devices may even be whirled up by wind or a pressure surge and create an explosive dust cloud.

Explosion limits

Each combustible dust or gas (vapour) has explosion limits. These limits are particularly important in case of a gas and dust explosion. The Lower Explosion Limit (LOL in short) and Upper Explosion Limit (UEL in short) indicate the ratio between dust or gas (vapour) and air. These explosion limits define the 'explosion range', the range within which an explosion could occur in case of an ignition. Under the LEL the mixture contains too little fuel, and above the UEL the mixture contains too much fuel and too little oxygen to continue burning after ignition.

What shall we do today?

The explosion limits of combustible gases differ strongly, a few examples:


Type of gas Explosion range
Acetylene (LEL) 1.5 to (UEL) 100 % by volume
Natural gas & methane (sewers) (LEL) 5.0 to (UEL) 15 % by volume

Explosions at agricultural companies and private houses involving methane and natural gas are often in the news. It is not uncommon that such an explosion takes place after a maintenance or service visit.

Flame point

The flame point of a fluid is the lowest temperature (at am atmospheric pressure of 1013 mbar) whereby so much vapour is generated from that fluid that it can ignite after having been mixed with the air above it. You could think of degreasing agents, petroleum ether or spirit used during service and maintenance. In a small space, the vapour from these product could ignite during welding or soldering, due to a spark from a switch or a welding or soldering device.

Self-ignition temperature

The self-ignition temperature is the lowest temperature whereby a combustible fluid may ignite autonomously. The self-ignition temperature is particularly important when selecting electrical equipment in zones where (ignitable) explosive vapour/air mixtures may be present.

Explosion safety

A minimum amount of energy is required to ignite an explosive. This energy can be supplied by flames, hot surfaces and sparks. In spaces where an explosive mixture may be present, it is only allowed to use equipment and tools that are not able to ignite the mixture. For electrical equipment, this method is referred to as 'method of protection'.

Zone classification

In principle, an installation is designed in such a way that no combustible substances can escape unintentionally or without control. Sometimes it is necessary to deviate from these requirements. Explosive gas mixtures may exist in installations or in factories. In order to be able to work there, three zones have been defined:
1. Zone 0: the area where an explosive gas mixture is present continuously, for long periods of time or repeatedly.
2. Zone 1: the area where an explosive gas mixture will probably be present occasionally during normal operation.
3. Zone 2: the area where the presence of an explosive gas mixture under normal operating conditions is not probable or where it can only be present for a short period of time.

For dust explosion hazards the following zone classification exists

+ Zone 20: the area where an explosive dust/air mixture is present continuously, for long periods of time or repeatedly.
+ Zone 21: the area where an explosive dust/air mixture will probably be present occasionally during normal operation.
+ Zone 22: the area where the presence of an explosive dust/air mixture is not probable under normal operating conditions or where it can only be present for a short period of time.

Importance of zone classification and the selection of electrical equipment

Through the classification into hazard zones, you will be able to select safe electrical materials for each zone. On the grounds of the methods of protection mentioned above, it is important to ensure that:
+ the materials cannot cause hazardous sparks or high temperatures;
+ no combustible gas mixture is able to get to the locations where sparks or high temperatures occur;
+ a gas explosion in the equipment is not propagated to the surrounding area and is unable to damage the equipment;
+ devices intended to be used on locations that may pose an explosion hazard meet the ATEX 95 directive. Devices that meet the directive are provided with a CE mark.

Hazardous area Zone 0/20 Zone 1/21 Zone 2/22 Non-hazardous area
Presence of combustible mixture: Continuous or during a longer period of time Great probability of presence during normal operation Small probability of presence and if present only for a short time Virtually impossible
Presence of electric ignition sources: Should not occur, also not in case of defects Not during normal operation; probability in case of certain defects and abnormal operating conditions negligibly small Not during normal operation; possible in case of defects or abnormal oper- ating conditions Possible during normal operation
Construction electric material: Only intrinsically safe constructions or special construction with certificate for zone 0/20 Material suitable for zone 0/20. Equivalent construction forms also allowed Construction or material that is suitable for 0/20 or 1/21 Ordinary construction

Measures to prevent explosions

In case of explosion hazards at workplaces, there are usually (company) rules and (calamity) procedures that apply. However, these rules and procedures may differ per workplace. That is why it is necessary to consult an expert or prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official). The work may only be performed if the expert has granted permission, usually by means of a work permit. If there are rooms or locations where an explosive atmosphere may occur, this will have to be indicated by means of warning signs.

Where possible, it should be prevented that people work in an environment that poses a fire or explosion risk. Observe the rule of thumb that under normal operating conditions, work in zone 1 or 21 should be avoided. Only in case of defects or malfunctions it may be necessary to work in zone 0 or 20. Do keep in mind that many flammable or explosive substances are hazardous to your health, even in concentrations far below the lower explosion level (LEL). If in doubt, seek advice from your direct manager or the expert.

What you should always look out for

1. Before you start:

+ Check in advance whether fitting measures have been taken (e.g. whether the correct permits have been issued).
+ Use the correct PPE.
+ Make sure you know the escape routes and keep them free from obstacles.
+ Let others know where you are working.
+ Prevent gas and dust explosions and make sure that no explosive concentrations can occur in the air and remove possible ignition sources. Usually, these measures are taken by third parties.
+ Make sure no combustible gas mixture is able to get to the locations where sparks or high temperatures occur;

2. When you start working:

+ Make sure the material is unable to cause hazardous sparks or high temperatures and do not heat (fluid) substances.
+ Make sure that a gas explosion in the equipment is not propagated to the surrounding area; always check whether the equipment is damaged.
+ Do not smoke on locations with a risk of explosion.
+ Only use allowed (electrical) tools and measuring equipment.
+ Use spark free tools, like wrenches and hammers made of aluminium bronze.

4.13 How to deal with harmful noise

At many workplaces noise is a huge problem. The noise level is expressed in decibels (dB). The human hearing is more sensitive to high tones than to low tones. High tones of a certain volume are experienced as louder than low tones with the same volume. In order to compare the noise level of different pitches, the A filter was developed. The noise level expressed in dB(A) shows that the noise experience is the same for all pitches.

Damage to hearing may occur in case of long exposure to noise levels above 80 dB(A).

The louder the noise, the shorter the time that you may be exposed to it. In the next table you can see how long per day you may be exposed to a certain noise level without risking permanent damage to your hearing (noise-induced hearing loss). You should realise that each additional 3dB means a doubling of the noise intensity.

Noise level in dB(A) Safe daily stay
80 8 hours
83 4 hours
86 2 hours
89 1 hours
92 30 minutes
95 15 minutes
98 7,5 minutes
101 approx. 4 minutes
104 approx. 2 minutes

Consequences of too much noise

Noise is propagated in sound waves. These are vibrations that reach the eardrum via the auditory duct. The eardrum passes the vibration on to the middle ear ossicles, which will amplify this vibration and pass it on to the so-called cochlea. In the cochlea duct there is a membrane covered with cilia. These cilia are connected to hair cells that convert the noise vibrations into electrical signals. These signals are sent to the brains via the auditory nerve. The brains convert the signals into a sound sensation.

If there is too much noise, the hair cells in the inner ear are numbed. This results in temporary loss of hearing. If the hair cells then do not get sufficient time to heal, they will eventually die. In that case we are dealing with permanent loss of hearing. In the latter case it becomes harder to hear high tones or soft noises and it will be difficult to hold a conversation, particularly in a noisy environment. Excessive exposure to noise may result in continuous ringing or buzzing in your ear, without this sound actually being present (tinnitus). This will often lead to sleeping and concentration problems and sometimes other health problems.

Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases in the Netherlands. For people who have been working for 40 years at a noise level of 85 dB(A), this is approximately 6% more common than for people who have not worked in a noisy environment. At a noise level of 90 dB(A) this is already 50%.

How to estimate the noise level

+ At a noise level of 58 dB(A), two people at a distance of approximately one metre from each other will be able to talk normally.
+ At a noise level of 70 dB(A) talking with a normal voice is becoming difficult. Two people at a distance of one metre from each other will have to raise their voices.
+ At a noise level of 80 dB(A), two people approximately one metre apart will have to shout in order to understand each other.

The table shows how much noise tools and activities produce.

Legal standards

In order to protect employees against harmful noise, legal standards have been established. The points of departure are:
+ In case of noise levels at the workplace of more than 80 dB(A), the employer must provide hearing protectors. Employees must be free to select the type of hearing protection.
+ At noise levels over 85 dB(A) employees are obliged to wear hearing protectors.
+ At noise levels over 85 dB(A), the employer is obliged to reduce the noise to the extent that this is reasonably possible.
+ If a machine produces more than 85 dB(A) at the workplace, the manufacturer should state the noise production on the machine.
+ If, on average through the day, employees are exposed to a noise level (noise dose level) of 80 dB(A) or higher, the employer should provide them the opportunity to undergo a hearing examination on a regular basis.

Own ears first?

4.14 Ionising and non-ionising radiation

There is radiation if a source is sending out energy in the form of particles or waves (electromagnetic radiation). We make a distinction between ionising and non-ionising radiation.

Ionising radiation

Ionising radiation is popularly known as radioactive radiation; this type of radiation can be encountered:
+ when checking weld joints using gamma sources (or x-ray appliances);
+ in smoke detectors (ionisation smoke detectors);
+ in measuring equipment, such as thickness gauges, level gauges and humidity gauges.

Legal provisions for ionising radiation

Working with ionising radiation is regulated via the Nuclear Energy Act. The radiation protection decree uses the following points of departure:
+ Justification
The intention of performing an activity involving ionising radiation is assessed. The question here is whether this activity is justified and whether the social advantages (e.g. economical profit) outweigh the disadvantages (increased radiation load). An activity that cannot be justified is prohibited. This could be the case if, for instance, there are good non-radioactive alternatives available.
+ ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable)
If the activity is allowed, the radiation load should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (also referred to 'ALARA').
+ Dose limits
Individuals may never be subjected to an unacceptably high radiation load.

Work whereby ionising radiation is used may only be performed if two conditions are met:
1. A permit has been granted prior to performance of the work.
2. The work is supervised by an appointed 'expert supervisor'.

The risks of ionisation detectors

Ionisation fire and smoke detectors use ionising radiation. A radioactive source is responsible for the ionisation of the air particles in the detector. This part of the detector is called the ionisation chamber. There is no radiation outside the ionisation chamber, so that the detector can be placed and removed without any problems. You do have to take the following precautions:
+ Request and study the instructions for assembling and disassembling the ionisation detectors.
+ Record the data provided on a detector and look them up in the instructions.
+ Use the prescribed PPE.
+ Do not open the detector to investigate the contents and never open the ionisation chamber.
+ Observe the instructions for storing and disposing the detectors.
+ Contact a prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) if:
- you have doubts concerning type or approach;
- the detector has been damaged;
- you have doubts concerning the condition of a detector, e.g. after fire or water damage;
- you are offered open or broken detectors for destruction.

Non-ionising radiation

Non-ionising radiation is radiation whereby the energy is not great enough to ionise matter. This radiation is also referred to as electromagnetic radiation or electromagnetic fields. For some categories of optical radiation there are limit values and measures. If something is unclear, please seek advice from a prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).

Types of non-ionising radiation

+ Ultraviolet light (UV radiation)
+ Visible light
+ Infra red light (IR radiation)
+ Radio frequency radiation and microwave radiation (from, for instance, transmission masts, GSM antennae and microwaves).

UV radiation

The major source of UV radiation is the sun. UV radiation is also released during various work activities, such as electric and gas welding, drying of paints and inks and checking printed boards. The risks are:
+ burning of the skin
+ corneal ulceration and conjunctivitis (welders' eyes)
+ accelerated ageing of the skin
+ skin cancer
+ cataract (clouding of the eye lens).

How to work safely in the sun (outdoors)

A little UV radiation is good for your health and helps your body to produce vitamin D. Too much UV is unhealthy and may cause skin cancer. This certainly applies to people working in open air. They have to process two to three times as much UV radiation as the average person in the Netherlands. For that reason, they are four to five times more likely to get skin cancer. The amount of UV in the sun light reaching the earth is expressed in solar power or the UV index. In the Netherlands, the UV index may vary from 1 (when there is no UV at all) to maximum 8. UV radiation is also released during various work activities, such as electric and gas welding, drying of paints and inks and checking printed boards. So protect yourself against excessive exposure to UV radiation and take the following measures:
+ Screen off work whereby UV radiation is released as much as possible.
+ If necessary, use PPE, such as UV goggles, a welding hood and protective clothing.
+ Limit the amount of time that you work in the sun or wear protective clothes.

If you are regularly working in open air, you should take the following measures

+ Keep the UV index and the hours of sunshine into account when planning your work.
+ Do not work with a naked upper body, but wear protective clothes.
+ If you still have to work in the sun between 11 am and 3 pm, you should apply a sunscreen of factor 10 or higher on your uncovered skin.
+ Apply the sunscreen again after 2 hours. More often if you perspire a lot.
+ Consult your company doctor or GP when a birthmark changes or a sore refuses to heal.

IR radiation

IR radiation is released during various activities, for instance during electric and gas welding. In other cases, IR radiation is used for hardening, drying and melting materials.

In case of exposure, IR radiation can penetrate the skin and deep into the eye. In case of exposure for a long period of time, the skin could get burnt. The radiation could also be harmful to the retina and cornea. Short, intense or long exposure may result in glassblower's cataract, whereby the retina gets clouded.

Therefore, take the following measures

+ Screen off the area as much as possible and keep a distance from the radiation source that is as large as possible.
+ Use the correct PPE, IR eye protection and protective clothes during your work.

Laser

A laser is a radiation source that transmits a highly intensive beam of radiation. This beam can consist of UV radiation, IR radiation and also visible light. As you can use lasers to aim a large amount of energy on a limited surface, these are used for:
+ measurement technology, such as flatness measurement, distance measurement and thickness measurement;
+ metal processing, such as drilling, cutting, perforating and engraving.
When working with lasers you run the risk that (the reflection of) a beam hits your skin or eyes. The consequences depend on the wavelength, the power and the duration of the exposure. A laser beam can also generate sufficient energy to ignite flammable materials.

Classification

On the basis of the hazards that they bring, lasers are subdivided into four classes. The higher the class, the more dangerous the laser and the more strict the safety directives. The class indication is often applied to the laser.

Four classes:

+ Class 1: the laser is safe. Either due to low power, or due to a screen as a result of which the light is unable to reach the eyes.
+ Class 2 or 2R: safe in case of normal use. Damage may occur if, in spite of the natural defensive reaction, people purposefully look into the beam. Examples are laser pointers and measuring equipment.
+ Class 2M: similar to class 2, but without instruments (lenses) concentrating the light. An example is an opened optical glass fibre connection.
+ Class 3M or 3A: limited hazard. The laser could result in damage to the eyes.
+ Class 3B: hazardous laser; the beam from the laser could directly damage the eye and - in case of higher capacities - the skin. Invisible lasers fall under class 3B. An example would be an opened dvd or cd player.
+ Klasse 4: Class 4: highly hazardous laser. Even a diffuse reflected beam could cause eye and skin damage. There is also a hazard of fire.

How to work safely with lasers

+ Avoid laser beams at eye level at all times.
+ Place warning signs at a laser installation (see section 3.1, page 41).
+ Wear telecom laser safety goggles when working at an opened optical glass fibre cable.

If possible, provide a casing or screen around the laser installation. In this way you will not make contact with the laser beam and there will be no contact possible with flammable materials.

4.15 Electromagnetic fields of antennae

Electromagnetic fields (EM fields) are used to transfer signals, in mobile telecommunication for instance. In order to obtain a range that is as optimum as possible, antennae are usually mounted on blocks of flats, towers, masts or other high objects. At this moment, there are three systems in the Netherlands:
1. GSM: the Global System for Mobile communication is the oldest and is mainly used for transmitting spoken information.
2. DCS: the Digital Communications System is also mainly used for transmitting spoken information.
3. UMTS: the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is intended for a better and faster transmission of data and is used for many more applications. You could think of telephone, internet, e-mail and the transmission of video and sound fragments.

There are also a number of other systems that are derived from these three systems.

Health effects

EM fields can be harmful to health at high radiation intensities. In case of exposure to EM fields in the frequency range of antennae, tissue can be heated. The operation of medical devices in the body, such as pacemakers, can be disturbed. Making contact with unearthed electricity conducting objects in the radiation field of a source may cause a shock.
Word-wide, a lot of investigation is conducted into all types of health problems (such as sleeplessness, concentration problems and headaches) in relation to (long term) exposure to low level EM fields. The health council of the Netherlands (Gezondheidsraad) regularly reviews these investigations. According to the health council there is little evidence at the moment to assume that there is a connection between these EM fields and these health problems. The occurrence of cancer has also been investigated within this framework, and here the health council also says that it is not probable that long term exposure to low level EM fields coming from antennae could cause this disease.
For more and current information, please consult the knowledge platform for EM fields: www.kennisplatform.nl

Is the use of GSM harmful?
The discussion as to whether the use of GSM is harmful returns regularly.Some investigations show that it is harmful and even harms health. Other investigations show the exact opposite. As long a there is no absolutecertainty, it is recommended to use GSM as little as possible or to use‘ear plugs’.

Legislation and regulations

On the basis of scientific investigation into health effects of EM fields, the limit of maximum allowed radiation intensity per frequency range for the working population is recorded in legal guidelines. For the general population there are more strict guidelines, as civilians are often unable to recognise the risks and therefore do not take measures. For civilians a longer period of exposure is assumed as well, namely 24 hours per day instead of during the work day for the working population.
Due to practical considerations this has been translated into so-called ‘action zones’. The action zone is the area around the source within which the maximum allowable limit could be exceeded. The action zone is calculated for the worst imaginable situation and therefore provides maximum safety.

Action zones

Take into account that the action zones per type of antenna may differ strongly. If you are regularly in contact with EM fields of GSM antennae, observe the generally applicable action zone of two metres straight in front of the antenna.

Other sources of EM fields are, for instance, antennae for radio telephones, radio transmitters and radio amateurs on roofs. These can have different forms, are often less conspicuous than GSM antennae or sometimes transmit with higher capacities. That will increase the risk. In addition, contrary to most GSM antennae, they sometimes transmit fields in a downward direction. Take into account that the action zones per antenna may differ strongly. The action zone for radio transmitters, for example, may even extend to more than 15 metres from the antenna.

Action zones per antenna can be found at www.antenneregister.nl. Also read NEN-EN 50499.

Measures

Measures to be taken by the employer:

+ Your employer is obliged to provide training and information, so that you are able to recognise the risks and take fitting measures.
+ The employer must perform an RI&E (Risk Inventory and Evaluation) before you can start your work at a GSM installation or near antennae. He should check which sources are present and indicate where you are allowed to work and which action zones you should take into account.
+ If measures must be taken, the employer must contact the owner of the building or the owner of the antenna well in advance before the work starts. Together they will determine how the work can be performed safely, for instance by switching off one or more antennae.
+ The employer must make a personal monitor available, if:
- the action zones cannot be determined;
- the antennae could occasionally transmit a strong signal.

The personal monitor is a device that can be used to estimate the action zone. You can also wear it in your own breast pocket to see if the limit is suddenly exceeded. The device generates a signal when you are exposed to levels that are too high. If you want to use such a device you should first consult the prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official).

Measures that you can take yourself:

+ Avoid the action zones as much as possible.
+ Never look in openings of transmitting components.
+ Remain in the main beam as short as possible.
+ Report hazardous situations and have the installation switched off, if necessary.

4.16 Welding and soldering

This section deals with the health and safety risks of welding and soldering and of the materials that are used for this. Whether you are involved with electric, gas, MAG, MIG or TIG wielding, welding metals and plastic or soldering with tin, copper or silver, you must always use the equipment safely and take measures to limit risks.

The health risks

1. Radiation: particularly in the case of electric welding, UV and IR radiation is produced. UV radiation is harmful to the eyes (welders' eyes) and the skin (sunburns, ageing of the skin or skin cancer). IR radiation is harmful to the skin and could lead to burns in case of exposure for a long period of time.
2. Hazardous substances: depending on the welding process applied, welding vapour or smoke contains various metal oxides that can be very harmful to health. This particularly applies when welding galvanised or coated steel. In the case of electric welding, harmful ozone is released as well. In case of soft soldering, vapours may be generated that may contain hazardous substances, such as lead.
3. Harmful noise: during the welding process or during chipping (this is an impulse noise) you can suffer hearing damage, as the noise level of most welding processes lies between no less than 90 and 95 dB(A). In case of gas welding, burning and cutting, the gas flow produces a high noise level.
4. Hot splashes and hot material: when soldering and welding, sparks, splashes and hot slag may be ejected or may fall. The welded surfaces and the tools are also very hot. So you can damage your eyes, suffer burns and, moreover, a fire may occur.
5. Physical load: welding is mostly done in an unfavourable position, bent over, squatted or on your knees. Wearing the heavy welding equipment and PPE can also be physically strenuous.

How to prevent health damage

+ Make sure the smoke is extracted at the source.
+ In addition to the extraction at source you should also use an overpressure mask if there is still smoke or damp in the breathing zone.
+ Guard the area against UV radiation.
+ Take colleagues in the direct vicinity into account by screening off the welding location: if this is not possible you should warn your colleagues in advance. Ensure that sparks, splashes and hot slag are unable to injure colleagues or cause fire.
+ Always assume that the work piece is hot.
+ Always use PPE: welding hood, welding goggles, gloves, hearing protection and welding clothes, such as a fire retardant overall, a welding skirt, welding sleeves or coat.
+ Check whether there is grease, oil, paint or coating on the surface of the parts to be welded. If this is the case, remove them as much as possible before welding.
+ Wear clean, complete and suitable work clothes and cover your skin to prevent burns.
+ Vary welding work with other work that is less strenuous and use accessories to reduce the physical load. For example, lifting equipment for transporting the welding equipment.

Safety risks

1. Electrocution: the open voltage between the welding electrode and the earth clamp is 60-85 V and can be lethal. During welding the open voltage will fall to approximately 30 V.
2. Fire and explosion: during welding it is possible that sparks, splashes and hot slag are ejected that could ignite other materials.
Due to the leakage of gases or oxygen an explosive mixture could be created. The lack of a flame extinguisher may then cause a flashback in a cylinder.
3. The use of gas cylinders: more and more during welding use is made of protective gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon. The gas and oxygen cylinders are used as well. If they fall over, there could be accidents.

How to prevent accidents

+ Check the insulation of live parts, such as the welding gun and the cables, in advance.
+ Place the earth clamp as close as possible to the work piece.
+ Switch off the welding transformer if you are not using it.
+ Keep the workplace clean and dry. Remove flammable materials, such as wood, paper or plastic, or cover them.
+ Check after welding work that there is no smouldering residual fire.
+ Ensure that there are sound extinguishers at the workplace.
+ Make sure the escape routes are free from obstacles, such as welding trolleys and hoses.
+ Use a properly working pressure reducer (screw out the spindle of the reducer when connecting) with the correct fitting materials.
+ Properly connect all fittings, so that there can be no leakage.
+ Replace defective and porous hoses (red hose for acetylene and red hose for gas).
+ Do not connect hoses with copper connecting pieces.
+ Make sure the gas cylinders cannot fall over and leave the main valve key on the cylinder.
+ Prevent the gas cylinders from heating and do not place them in full sun.
+ If there is no space to place the gas cylinders in a straight position, the acetylene bottle should be placed in a slanted position. The connection side should be 60 to 80 cm above the ground.

Transportation of gas cylinders

You are allowed to transport a gas cylinder in a service or work vehicle in order to stock a project or for the benefit of maintenance and repair work. If a gas cylinder contains a hazardous substance, you are only allowed to transport a limited amount. If you do not exceed this amount, no transportation documents are required, but the product data sheets must be present in the car. Always consult a prevention official (Working Conditions or HSE official) in advance.

Always observe the following rules

+ Ensure that you know what you are transporting, you can read this in the HSE and product data sheets, for example.
+ Only take the substances that are strictly necessary.
+ Remove pressure regulators and other accessories from the cylinder lock, before the cylinders are loaded in the vehicle, and provide the cylinders with a protective cover.
+ Ensure that the cylinders cannot fall, tilt or shift when moved or transported.
+ Store empty and full cylinders separately and separate oxygen and gas.
+ When transporting, do not treat empty cylinders differently from full ones, mark empty cylinders.
+ Observe the maximum volumes for transportation. Make sure the vehicle is well ventilated.
+ Make sure a fire extinguishing agent is present (at least 2 kg of powder).
+ Do not smoke during transportation and during loading and unloading, even if the cylinders in themselves are not flammable.

Safe storage and placement of gas cylinders

+ Make sure you record how many gas cylinders are being stored. In emergency situations you must be able to provide the data to aid workers.
+ Secure standing bottles with chains or other sufficient means. Place a cone/wedge in the case of lying cylinders. Store acetylene cylinders in a standing position.
+ Provide the cylinders with guards on the connections.
+ Store empty and full cylinders separately and separate oxygen and gas. Place a partition between the different types of gas.
+ Provide proper ventilation.
+ Observe the maximum volumes for storage.
+ When storing, do not treat empty cylinders differently from full ones, mark empty cylinders.
+ Do not hang hoses or welding cables around cylinders; the valve (cover) should remain accessible.
+ Prevent the gas cylinders from heating and do not place them in full sun.
+ Protect the gas cylinders against weather influences (rain, snow).

Welding safely in enclosed spaces

The term ‘enclosed space’ comprises all high-risk and difficult to access spaces in which insufficient natural ventilation is possible. You could think of tanks, pits and crawl spaces, as well as very well insulated residential homes and offices. Screened rooms during a renovation can also be enclosed spaces due to good insulation and sealing.

Welding in enclosed spaces demands extra attention [Also see task risk analysis 6.9 'Working safely in an enclosed space' on page 207]. Due to a lack of ventilation, gas and oxygen can accumulate in the space. Therefore, take the following measures:
+ Provide proper extraction or ventilation, so that the welding vapours cannot accumulate.
+ In case of doubt, have the room checked for the presence of flammable gases or vapours (gas free declaration).
+ Observe the instructions in the task risk analysis (TRA).
+ Use a manhole watch to make sure that an emergency is always registered.
+ During electric welding, apply a good earth connection as close as possible to the work piece.
+ Close the gas cylinders prior to each break. Leave the keys on the cylinder.
+ Use a maximum flow limiter in case of gas and oxygen.
+ Inspect hoses and connections for leaks. Always use a voltage reducing relay.

5. Task Risk Analyses (TRAs): the work

Through the performance of TRAs, the hazards and causes of damages of a large number of activities in installation engineering have been identified. In this chapter you will find the TRAs whereby the risk is determined by the type of work. You will also find a number of tools for drawing up your own TRA.

Drawing up your own TRA

It is possible that you have to perform a task for which no TRA has been included in this book. In that case, you can determine the risk class yourself on the basis of the following calculation method.

In the mathematical risk approach every risk has an R value (risk value): each risk is subdivided into an R class (risk class).

The risk is calculated on the basis of:
+ P value: the probability of the risk;
+ E value: the duration of exposure to the risk;
+ C value: the scope of possible injury or damage.

Step 1: determine P value, E value and C value

The P value is expressed in a figure between 0 and 10. The higher the P value, the more probable the risk.

P-waarde / Waarschijnlijkheid van het risico
P value Probability of the risk
10 Can be expected, almost certain
6 Highly possible
3 Unusual, but possible
1 Only possible in the long term
0,5 Conceivable, but highly improbable
0,2 Practically impossible
0,1 Virtually impossible

The E value is expressed in a figure between 0.5 and 10. The higher the E value, the longer the exposure.

E-waarde / Duur van de blootstelling aan het risico
E value Duration of exposure to the risk.
10 Continuous
6 Daily during work hours
3 Weekly or occasionally
2 Monthly
1 A few times per year
0,5 Very rarely

The C value is expressed in a figure between 1 and 100. The higher the value, the greater the possible injury or possible damage.

C-waarde / Grootte van het mogelijke letsel of de mogelijke schade
C value Scope of possible injury or possible damage
100 Catastrophic
40 Disaster, several fatalities
15 Very serious, one fatality
7 Considerable, serious injuries
3 Major, interruption of work
1 Significant, first aid may be required

Step 2: calculating the R value on the basis of the formula

R = P x E x C
Then, based on the outcome and using the following table, determine the respective R class.

R-waarde/R-klasse/Aard van de te nemen maatregelen
R value R class Nature of the measures to be taken
320 V Very high risk, consider stopping the activities
160-320 IV High risk, immediate measures required
70-160 III Substantial risk, measures are required
20-70 II Possibly some risk, attention required
<20 I Slight risk, is probably acceptable

Calculation example

P=3
The exposure to a certain risk during the work is estimated as unusual, but possible.

E=6
The exposure to the risk takes place daily during work hours.

C=7
If the accident occurs, the possible damage will be considerable. One or more persons will suffer serious injuries.

R value
R = PxExC = 3x6x7 = 126

R class
Class III = substantial risk, measures are required.

Caution:
+ The tables in chapters 5 and 6 only state the major risks.
+ It is possible that you will have to consult more than one table.
+ For some activities no table has been included.

5.1 Working safely when testing, trialling, implementing and setting a mechanical and/or electrical installation

5.2 Working safely when assembling and/or compiling mechanical or electrical installation components

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Being grabbed by moving components; e.g. due to the presence of running fans or motors IV + If a work permit system applies, work in accordance with the work permit
+ Switch off installation
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
II 4.6, 3.2
Contact with (environmen- tally) hazardous substances; e.g. products used and/or present in installations IV + Check whether installation is de-pressurised
+ Avoid heating of chlorinated refrigerants, to prevent formation of chlorine gas
+ Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe instructions
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes, work gloves
II 4.7, 4.10, 3.7, 3.4
Electrical impact; e.g. when work is performed at electrical installations III + Perform an LMRA prior to the work
+ Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Observe the five golden rules for working at electrical installations
+ Screen off live components and use warning signs, such as 'live' and ‘do not switch’
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
+ It is prohibited to work at or near live installations
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in virtually all cases. This is only allowed under very strict conditions and if the employer has issued a written assignment for this (NEN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ When working at or near live components you must use tools that are specifically intended for that purpose.
+ Use approved measuring equipment
+ Provide temporary cables with labels
+ Cap open cable ends
I 4.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Perform an LMRA prior to the work
+ Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances III + Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
+ If applicable, this should be performed by certified employees
I 3.5, 3.3

5.3 Working safely when assembling, compiling, disassembling, demolishing a mechanical or electrical installation

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Being grabbed by moving components; e.g. due to the presence of running fans or motors IV + Switch off installation
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
+ If a work permit system applies, work in accordance with the work permit
II 4.6, 3.2
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. products used and/or present in installations III + Check whether installation is de-pressurised
+ Avoid heating of chlorinated refrigerants, to prevent formation of chlorine gas
+ Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes, work gloves
I 4.7, 4.10, 3.7, 3.4
Electrical impact; e.g. when work is performed at mechanical and electrical installations III + Perform an LMRA prior to the work
+ Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Observe the five golden rules for working at electrical installations
+ Screen off live components and use warning signs, such as ‘live’ and ‘do not switch’
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
+ It is prohibited to work at or near live installations
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in virtually all cases. This is only allowed under very strict conditions and if the employer has issued a written assignment for this (NEN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ When working at or near live components you must use tools that are specifically intended for that purpose.
+ Use approved measuring equipment
+ Provide temporary cables with labels
+ Cap open cable ends
I 4.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Vibrations IV + Limit the duration of exposure
+ Use PPE such as gloves
II 3.7
Physical load IV + Perform an LMRA prior to the work
+ Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances III + Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
+ If applicable, this should be performed by certified employees
I 3.5, 3.3

5.4 Working safely at a transformer and/or electric motor

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. products used and/or present in the installations (in case of 'old' installations, watch out for PCBs) III + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes and work gloves
I 4.7, 3.7, 3.4
Electrical impact; e.g. when work is performed at electrical installations III + Perform an LMRA prior to the work
+ Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Observe the five golden rules for working at electrical installations
+ Screen off live components and use warning signs, such as ‘live’ and ‘do not switch’
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
+ It is prohibited to work at or near live installations
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in virtually all cases. This is only allowed under very strict conditions and if the employer has issued a written assignment for this (NEN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ When working at or near live components you must use tools that are specifically intended for that purpose.
+ Use approved measuring equipment
+ Provide temporary cables with labels
+ Cap open cable ends
I 4.6
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

5.5 Working safely when assembling, disassembling and/or demolishing electrical cabling

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Being grabbed by moving components; e.g. due to the presence of running fans or motors IV + If a work permit system applies,work in accordance with the work permit
+ Switch off installation
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
II 4.6, 3.2
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. products used and/or present in installations IV + Check whether installation is de-pressurised
+ Avoid heating of chlorinated refrigerants, to prevent formation of chlorine gas
+ Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes, work gloves
II 4.7, 4.10, 3.7, 3.4
Electrical impact; e.g. when work is performed at mechanical and electrical installations III + Perform an LMRA prior to the work
+ Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Observe the five golden rules for working at electrical installations
+ Screen off live components and use warning signs, such as 'live' and 'do not switch'
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
+ It is prohibited to work at or near live installations
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in virtually all cases. This is only allowed under very strict conditions and if the employer has issued a written assignment for this (NEN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ When working at or near live components you must use tools that are specifically intended for that purpose.
+ Use approved measuring equipment
+ Provide temporary cables with labels
+ Cap open cable ends
I 4.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Vibrations IV + Limit the duration of exposure
+ Use PPE such as gloves
II 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances III + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

5.6 Working safely when assembling, disassembling and demolishing air ducts, cable gutters and/or plating

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Being grabbed by moving components; e.g. due to the presence of running fans or motors IV + If a work permit system applies, work in accordance with the work permit
+ Switch off installation
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
II 4.6, 3.2
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. products used and/or present in the cable gutter, air ducts (Be careful with 'old' asbestos cement and asbestos coated air ducts) and air filters IV + Familiarise yourself with the products present and the processing techniques and consult an expert, e.g. at the client.
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes, work gloves
II 4.7, 4.9, 3.7, 3.4
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 4.6
Vibrations IV + Limit the duration of exposure
+ Use PPE such as gloves
II 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous sub- stances III + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

One more for the road

5.7 Working safely when disassembling and demolishing piping

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Being grabbed by moving compo- nents; e.g. due to the presence of running fans or motors IV + If a work permit system applies, work in accord- ance with the work permit
+ Switch off installation
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactiva- tion by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
II 4.6, 3.2
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to the presence of flammable substances IV + Have an expert establish the fire and explosion hazard before you access the room and have an expert monitor this hazard during the work
+ If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
+ Screen flammable sections
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
II 4.12, 3.11
Contact with (environmen- tally) hazardous substances; e.g. products used and/or present in the installation IV + Check whether installation is de-pressurised
+ Avoid heating of chlorinated refrigerants, to prevent formation of chlorine gas
+ Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes, work gloves
II 4.7, 3.7, 3.4
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.7, 3.2
Vibrations IV + Limit the duration of exposure
+ Use PPE such as gloves
II 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

5.8 Working safely when working with cooling systems

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. because the 'new' refrigerant gases could contain highly flammable components III + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Screen off flammable sections and ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
I 4.12, 4.10
Hazard of suffocation (O2 ≤ 21 % by volume); e.g. through displacement of oxygen IV + Provide proper ventilation (refrigerant gases are usually heavier than air and may therefore displace oxygen upwards from floor level)
+ Provide oxygen measurement, so that it can be guaranteed that there is sufficient oxygen in the room
II 4.10
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. hazard of poisoning or suffocation IV + Avoid heating of chlorinated refrigerants, to prevent formation of chlorine gas
+ Check whether installation is de-pressurised
+ Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe instructions
+ Use PPE such as respiratory protection
II 4.7, 3.7, 3.4
Electrical impact; e.g. when work is performed at mechanical and electrical installations III + Perform an LMRA prior to the work
+ Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Observe the five golden rules for working with electricity
+ Screen off live components and use warning signs, such as 'live' and 'do not switch'
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
+ It is prohibited to work at or near live installations
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in virtually all cases. This is only allowed under very strict conditions and if the employer has issued a written assignment for this (NEN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ When working at or near live components you must use tools that are specifically intended for that purpose.
+ Use approved measuring equipment
+ Provide temporary cables with labels
+ Cap open cable ends
I 4.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.5
Environmental damage, e.g. harmful effect on the ozone layer. IV + Prevent refrigerant gases from flowing out by working in accordance with legal guidelines and through execution by (STEK) certified employees.
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 4.10, 3.3
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.9 Working safely when pressurising piping

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. products used and/or present in installations IV + Avoid heating of chlorinated refrigerants, to prevent formation of chlorine gas
+ Check whether installation is de-pressurised
+ Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes, work gloves
II 4.10, 4.12, 3.7, 3.4
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances III + Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged + If applicable, this should be performed by (STEK) certified employees
I 3.5, 3.3

5.10 Working safely with (environmentally) hazardous substances

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Unfamiliarity with the product; e.g. products used and/or present in installations IV + Study HSE data and strictly observe the instructions
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes and work gloves
II 4.7, 3.7, 3.4
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. because the product contains (highly) flammable components and evaporates quickly III + Make sure you are familiar with the product to be processed and the processing techniques
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
+ Ventilate the work space or use ventilation
I 4.12, 3.11
Radiation hazard V + Work whereby ionising radiation is used may only be performed if two conditions are met:
1. A permit has been issued for the performance of this work
2. The work is supervised by an appointed ‘expert supervisor’
+ Check whether there are any unauthorised persons in the work area and make sure they cannot access the work area.
II 4.14
Hazard of suffocation (O2 ≤ 21 % by volume); e.g. through the displacement of oxygen IV + Provide proper ventilation (refrigerant gases are usually heavier than air and may therefore displace oxygen upwards from floor level)
+ Ventilate the work space or use forced ventilation
+ Perform oxygen measurements
II 4.10
Poisoning; e.g. because the product entered the body through swallowing, via the skin and/or through inhalation III + Carefully observe the instructions on the packaging or the HSE information on the product data sheet.
+ In case of doubt, contact the company doctor or general practitioner and bring the packaging and/ or HSE information of the product.
I 4.7, 3.4
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

5.11 Working safely when pouring a cable sleeve

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Unfamiliarity with the product; e.g. a new product IV + Study HSE data and strictly observe the instructions
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes and work gloves
II 4.7, 3.7, 3.4
Poisoning; e.g. because the product entered the body through swallowing, via the skin and/or through inhalation III + Carefully observe the instructions on the packaging or the HSE information on the product data sheet.
+ In case of doubt, contact the company doctor or general practitioner and bring the packaging and/ or HSE information of the product.
I 3.4, 4.7
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II , 3.6, 4.5
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

5.12 Working safely with ionisation fire alarms

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Radioactive radiation; although most ionisation fire alarms contain a small source, they are not dangerous provided they are undamaged and are stored in limited amounts III + Storage and transport should take place under certain conditions; observe the instructions of the supplier/manufacturer
+ Read the user and assembly instructions
+ Do not open or damage the alarm
I 4.14
Impact through radiation; e.g. in case of damage III + Consult an expert when in doubt concerning the management measure in case of damage or degradation after fire or water damage I 4.14
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to loss of environmentally hazardous alarms III + Alarms may not end up in the environment. Therefore, dispose of them via the supplier or a recognised waste processing company I 3.5, 4.14

5.13 Working safely with laser light

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Impact through radiation; eye irritation I + Laser class 1 ( ≤ 0.25 mW, safe laser) I 4.14
Impact through radiation; eye damage II + Laser class 2 ( ≤ 1 mW) (not fully safe laser): make sure you do not purposefully and for a long period of time look into the laser light
+ Use the correct safety goggles (caution: laser goggles provide protection against one particular wavelength, i.e. not against other wavelengths)
II 4.14
Impact through radiation; irrecoverable eye damage and burns IV + Laser class 3a (1-5 mW) (moderately hazardous laser); do not look into the laser light, also not with optical tools, such as a telescope, microscope or binoculars
+ Use the correct safety goggles (caution: laser goggles provide protection against one particular wavelength, i.e. not against other wavelengths)
II 4.14
Impact through radiation; irrecoverable eye damage, burns and fire hazard IV + Laser class 3b (5-500 mW) and laser class 4 (≥ 500 mW), (highly) hazardous laser: prevent looking into and making skin contact with the laser light, also avoid reflection and scattered light
+ Use the correct safety goggles (caution: laser goggles provide protection against one particular wavelength, i.e. not against other wavelengths)
II 4.14
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to the nearness of a (highly) flammable product III + Familiarise yourself with the products that are present
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
+ Ventilate the work space or use ventilation
I 4.12, 3.11

5.14 Working safely when transporting material by car or truck

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Traffic accidents III + The driver should have a valid driver's licence. + The driver should be familiar with the traffic rules that apply on location + The vehicle must be well-maintained + The driver should observe the drive and rest periods I
Transportation of hazardous substances III + Know what is being transported
+ Observe the regulations ‘international road transport operations’ (ADR). If in doubt, contact a safety expert
+ Do not take damaged packages with you
+ Provide proper ventilation
+ Do not smoke during transportation and during loading and unloading
I 4.7
Falling over and damages III + Place the vehicle in a stable position when loading and unloading I
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties: e.g. when blocking roads III + Use beaconing and/or road blocks, so that unauthorised persons cannot walk through the work area
+ Use safety clothes or a safety vest during loading and unloading along public roads.
I 3.1
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. when packaging falls over or gets damaged III + Study HSE data and strictly observe the instructions
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes and work gloves
I 4.7, 3.4, 3.7
Physical load IV + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
II 3.6, 3.2, 3.7
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

5.15 Working safely when loading and unloading materials

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Breaking of hoisting equipment III + Use certified hoisting equipment that is in a good condition
+ If you use hoists or such like, you should fasten them in such a way to a suitable construction part, that they are able to move freely
+ Watch out for sharp transitions (use a chock)
+ Use wedge/cone clamps for final connections of cables and no U bolt connections
I 4.5
Falling over and damages; e.g. during driving and manoeuvring loads III + Fasten the load
+ If necessary, draw up a loading and unloading plan
+ Place the vehicle in a stable position when loading and unloading
+ Check whether the crane or tailgate are approved
+ The operator must be sufficiently qualified
I 4.4, 4.5
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. in case of falling over or damage III + Study HSE data and strictly observe the instructions
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes and work gloves
I 4.7, 3.4, 3.7
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties: e.g. when blocking roads III + Use beaconing and/or road blocks, so that unauthorised persons cannot walk through the work area
+ Use safety clothes or a safety vest during loading and unloading along public roads.
I 2.1
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools, e.g. hand truck and pallet truck, and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous sub- stances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged
II 3.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.16 Working safely when hoisting heavy loads

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Breaking of hoisting equipment III + Use certified hoisting equipment that is in a good condition
+ If you use hoists or such like, you should fasten them in such a way to a suitable construction part, that they are able to move freely
+ Watch out for sharp transitions (use chock)
+ Use wedge/cone clamps for final connections of cables and no U bolt connections
I 4.5
Falling over, collapsing crane and damages; e.g. when manoeuvring with the load III + The crane must be approved
+ The operator must be qualified
+ Place the crane in a stable position (struts)
+ Enclose or demarcate the hoisting location
+ Draw up a hoisting plan in case of heavy or difficult hoisting activities
+ Use certified hoisting equipment that is in a good condition
+ Ensure good communication through signs, gestures, oral communication (walkie-talkies)
+ Use steering lines
II 4.5
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties: e.g. when blocking roads III + Use beaconing and/or road blocks, so that unauthorised persons cannot walk through the work area
+ When loading and unloading along public roads, wear safety clothes or a safety vest.
II 3.1
Wind load IV + Stop the work in case of a wind force of more than 7 BF II 4.5
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools, e.g. hand truck and pallet truck, and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.17 Working safely with electrical and mechanical (hand) tools

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Incorrect use of tools IV + Check the electrical (hand) tools for defects
+ Follow the instructions
II 3.2
Vibrations IV + Limit the duration of exposure
+ Use PPE, such as safety shoes and/or gloves
II 3.7
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.18 Working safely with permanently installed machines

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. refrigerant IV + Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes and work gloves II 3.7
Physical load III + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
I 3.6, 4.5
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects IV + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
II 3.2, 3.7
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged
II 3.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.19 Working safely with electric saws

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Contact with (environmen- tally) hazardous substances; e.g. quartz dust, refrigerants IV + Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes, work gloves II 3.7, 4.11
Electrical impact; e.g. electrocu- tion due to the use of electrical materials and/ or conductive wet floors III + Use electrically mobile doubly insulated tools or a safety transformer I 4.3, 4.6
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects IV + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
II 3.2, 3.7
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous sub- stances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.20 Working safely during grinding activities

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to the presence of flammable gases and/or vapours of solvents (e.g. in paint) IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit
+ Screen flammable sections
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
II 4.12, 3.11
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. quartz dust, metal particles, refrigerants IV + Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes, work gloves II 4.7, 4.11
Electrical impact; e.g. electrocution due to the use of electrical materials and/ or conductive wet floors III + Use electrically mobile doubly insulated tools or a safety transformer I 4.3, 4.6
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Voorkom te zwaar tillen; maak bijvoorbeeld gebruik van tilhulpmiddelen
II 3.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.21 Working safely during drilling activities

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. quartz dust, metal particles, refrigerants IV + Use tools with dust extraction or precipitate the dust with water
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes, work gloves
II 4.7, 4.11
Electrical impact; e.g. electrocution due to the use of electrical materials and/ or conductive wet floors III + Use electrically mobile doubly insulated tools or a safety transformer
+ Read and observe the user instructions
I 4.3, 4.6
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
II 3.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles
I 3.2, 3.7
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.22 Working safely when mechanically cutting or bending piping

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Incorrect use of tools IV + Check the electrical (hand) tools for defects
+ Follow the instructions
II 4.3
Being grabbed by moving components; e.g. due to moving parts of a threading machine IV + Prevent unwanted activation by activating the locking and using a foot switch
+ Use bending tools
II 4.6, 3.2
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Vibrations IV + Limit the duration of exposure
+ Use PPE, such as safety shoes and/or gloves
II 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
II 3.6
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

5.23 Working safely during gas welding or burning

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to leaking hoses and fittings or as a result of hot slag IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit
+ Remove flammable parts or screen them
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
+ Place the welding trolley at a safe place and place a cylinder key on the cylinder
II 4.12, 3.11, 4.16
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. welding smoke and vaporising surface contaminations IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Use (source) extraction and/or ventilation
+ Clean the weld surface
+ Use PPE, such as safety (wide view) goggles, respiratory protection, work clothes, work gloves
II 4.7, 3.4, 3.7, 4.16
Thermal impact; e.g. UV radiation, skin burn and welders' eyes IV + Use PPE, such as welding screen or welding goggles, work clothes and work gloves II 4.14, 3.7
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A)) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.24 Working safely during electric welding

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to leaking hoses and fittings IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit
+ Remove flammable parts or screen them
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
+ Place the welding transformer on a safe location
II 4.16, 4.12, 3.11
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; welding smoke and vaporising contaminations on the surface to be welded IV + Use (source) extraction and/or ventilation
+ Clean the weld surface
+ Use PPE such as respiratory protection
+ Caution: when welding rustproof materials, carcinogenic substances will be released
II 4.7, 3.4, 3.7, 4.16
Thermal impact; e.g. UV radiation, skin burn and welders' eyes IV + Use PPE, such as a welding screen or welding goggles, work clothes and work gloves II 4.14, 3.7
Electrical impact; e.g. electrocution as a result of unsafe arc voltage III + Use approved welding equipment
+ Screen live sections
+ Use a voltage reducing relay
I 4.16
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.25 Working safely during soldering

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to leaking hoses and fittings or as a result of hot slag IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit
+ Remove flammable parts or screen them
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
+ Place the welding trolley at a safe place and place a cylinder key on the cylinder
II 4.12
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. (welding) vaporising surface contaminations IV + Use (source) extraction and/or ventilation
+ Clean the weld surface
+ Use PPE such as respiratory protection
II 4.7
Thermal impact: e.g. skin burns IV + Use PPE, such as work clothes and work gloves II 3.7
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.26 Working safely when hoisting cabinets and boards

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Falling over and damages; e.g. when moving and manoeuvring cabinet or board IV + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary, also in relation to the supply route
+ Place the board or cabinet on a safe pedestal, so that it cannot fall over
+ GUse PPE, such as work clothes, safety shoes and safety helmet
II 1.2, 3.7, 4.5
Disruption of expectation pattern; e.g. when blocking connecting route III + Transport the board or cabinet over the previously agreed supply route
+ Use markings and/or demarcation material, so that unauthorised persons/visitors are not able to block or access the route.
+ Use high visibility clothing (traffic vest) when hoisting along public roads
I 3.7, 3.1
Falling over, collapsing crane and damages; e.g. when manoeuvring with load /cabinet or board IV + Use an approved crane and check the crane logbook
+ Use a correctly qualified crane operator
+ Make sure the hoisting crane is in a stable position and is properly strutted
+ Draw up a ‘hoisting plan’ in advance, certainly in case of heavy or difficult hoisting work and a restricted manoeuvring space
+ Ensure good communication through signs, gestures or verbal communication (walkie-talkies)
II 4.5
Wind load IV + Stop the work in case of a wind force of more than 6 BF II 4.5
Breaking of hoisting equipment, e.g. when manoeuvring II + Use certified hoisting equipment that is in a good condition
+ Attach hoists and such correctly to a construction part that is suitable for that purpose
+ Watch out for sharp transitions (use a chock if necessary)
  4.5
Physical load IV + Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures by placing the board or cabinet in such a way that it can be easily reached
+ Avoid heavy lifting. When manipulating and/or moving the board or cabinet you should use equipment like hand trucks and pallet trucks and ensure a good location
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.27 Working safely when loading and unloading cabinets and boards

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Falling over and damages; e.g. when loading, moving and manoeuvring cabinet or board IV + Ensure order and neatness at the loading and unloading site
+ Place the vehicle in a stable position when loading and unloading
+ If applicable, use a qualified crane operator and draw up a loading and unloading plan if necessary
+ Check whether the crane or tailgate are approved
+ Place the board or cabinet on a safe pedestal
+ Secure the board or cabinet against falling over in the vehicle, so it cannot fall over when driving or braking suddenly
+ Use PPE, such as work clothes, safety shoes and safety helmet
II 3.2, 3.7, 4.5
Disruption of expectation pattern; e.g. when blocking connecting route III + Transport the board or cabinet over the previously agreed supply route
+ Use markings and/or demarcation material, so that unauthorised persons and/or visitors are not able to block or access the loading or unloading point.
+ Use high visibility clothing (traffic vest) when loading and unloading along public roads
I 3.7, 3.1, 4.5
Breaking of hoisting equipment and fasteners; e.g. when manoeuvring and braking suddenly II + Use certified hoisting equipment that is in a good condition
+ Attach hoists and such correctly to a construction part that is suitable for that purpose
+ Use correct fasteners, such as lashings
+ Watch out for sharp transitions (use a chock if necessary)
I 4.5
Physical load IV + Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures by placing the board or cabinet in such a way that it can be easily reached
+ Avoid heavy lifting. When manipulating and/or moving the board or cabinet you should use equipment like hand trucks and pallet trucks and provide a good location
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.28 Working safely when placing/moving cabinets and boards

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Falling over and damages; e.g. during assembly work and mechanical processing IV + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Place the board or cabinet on a safe pedestal, so that it cannot fall over
+ Use PPE, such as work clothes, safety helmet and safety gloves
II 3.2, 3.7, 4.5
Disruption of expectation pattern; e.g. when blocking connecting route III + Place the board or cabinet within the agreed delineation (not on the marked out walking routes)
+ Use markings and/or demarcation material, so that unauthorised persons and/or visitors cannot walk through the work area
I 3.1, 4.5
Breaking of hoisting equipment; e.g. when manoeuvring II + Use certified hoisting equipment that is in a good condition
+ Attach hoists and such correctly to a construction part that is suitable for that purpose
+ Watch out for sharp transitions (use a chock if necessary)
I 4.5
Physical load IV + Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures by placing the board or cabinet at the correct working height
+ Avoid heavy lifting. When manipulating and/or moving the board or cabinet you should use equipment like hand trucks and pallet trucks and provide a good location
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) III + Avoid hearing damage; use hearing protection in case of mechanical processing, such as drilling and sawing I 3.7, 4.13
Electrical impact; e.g. through coupling of cabinets and boards II + Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Observe the five golden rules for working at electrical installations
+ Screen off live components and use warning signs, such as 'live' and 'do not switch'
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
+ It is prohibited to work at or near live installations
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in virtually all cases. This is only allowed under very strict conditions and if the employer has provided permission in writing (NEN 50110/ NEN 3140)
+ When working at or near live components you must use tools that are specifically intended for that purpose.
+ Use approved measuring equipment
+ Provide temporary cables with labels
I 4.6

5.29 Working safely when placing/moving tools and materials

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Falling over and damages; e.g. during assembly work and mechanical processing IV + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as work clothes, safety helmet and safety gloves/shoes
II 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Only take with you what is absolutely necessary, it will make a difference in weight
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) postures when lifting tools and moving materials
+ Avoid heavy lifting. Use tools such as hand trucks and pallet trucks when manipulating and/or moving
+ Be a good colleague, help your colleague(s) when the physical load is too great
II 3.6
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

5.30 Working safely when (re-)connecting electric cables

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Electrical impact, such as electrocution through contact with live components IV + Perform an LMRA prior to the work
+ Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Observe the five golden rules for working at electrical installations
+ Screen off live components and use warning signs, such as 'live' and 'do not switch'
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
+ It is prohibited to work at or near live installations
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in virtually all cases. This is only allowed under very strict conditions and if the employer has provided permission in writing (NEN 50110/ NEN 3140)
+ When working at or near live components you must use tools that are specifically intended for that purpose.
+ Use approved measuring equipment
+ Provide temporary cables with labels
+ Cap open cable ends
II 4.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5

5.31 Working safely when replacing air conditioning filters

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. dust particles, (nitrous) vapours IV + Have the installation, extraction and/or ventilation switched off
+ Check what substances are being used and residues of which may be left on the filter cloth
+ Avoid dispersal, and handle old filter cloths carefully
+ Use the boxes that contained the new filter cloths to dispose used filter cloths.
+ Use PPE, such as respiratory protection, company clothes, gloves, etc.
II 4.7, 3.7,3.4
Poisoning; e.g. because the product entered the body via the skin and/or through inhalation III + In case of doubt, contact the company doctor or general practitioner and bring the packaging and/ or HSE information of the product. I 3.4, 4.7
Electrical impact; e.g. when work is performed at mechanical and electrical installations III + Perform an LMRA prior to the work
+ Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Observe the five golden rules for working with electricity
+ Screen off live components and use warning signs, such as 'live' and 'do not switch'
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
+ It is prohibited to work at or near live installations
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in virtually all cases. This is only allowed under very strict conditions and if the employer has provided permission in writing (NEN 50110/ NEN 3140)
+ When working at or near live components you must use tools that are specifically intended for that purpose.
+ Use approved measuring equipment
+ Provide temporary cables with labels
+ Cap open cable ends
I 4.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Check whether the installation site is free from obstacles and ensure order and neatness at the workplace. Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid working for a long period of time (more than 2 hours) on a ladder. If work takes more than 2 hours, you should preferably use different work equipment, such as a mobile scaffold
II 3.6, 4.4
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

6. Task Risk Analysis (TRAs): the surroundings

In this chapter you will find the TRAs whereby the risk is mainly determined by the surroundings in which you are working.

Caution:
+ The tables in chapters 5 and 6 only state the major risks.
+ It is possible that you will have to consult more than one table.
+ For some activities no table has been included.
+ In chapter 5, page 142, you will also find a number of tools for drawing up your own TRA.

6.1 Working safely on your own

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
During an incident and/or calamity, the emergency response is delayed; for example, when you are working without supervision or with indirect supervision from colleague(s) or the client. IV + Tell your colleague or the client when and where you will be performing your work
+ Make fixed agreements for regular checks
+ Use communication equipment, such as walkie- talkies, intercoms and mobile phones
+ Use a motion detector
+ Perform the work within the range of perception of a second person
II 3.10, 3.9
Electrical impact; e.g. when work is performed at mechanical and electrical installations III + Perform an LMRA prior to the work
+ Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Observe the five golden rules for working at electrical installations
+ Screen off live components and use warning signs, such as ‘live’ and ‘do not switch’
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
+ It is prohibited to work at or near live installations
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in virtually all cases. This is only allowed under very strict conditions and if the employer has provided permission in writing (NEN 50110/ NEN 3140)
+ When working at or near live components you must use tools that are specifically intended for that purpose.
+ Use approved measuring equipment
+ Provide temporary cables with labels
+ Cap open cable ends
I 4.6

Note
The measures for working alone also apply if you are working in a remote location, without any colleagues nearby. Good communication may be vital. For that reason you should always register yourself and sign out. Sometimes this can be a problem, outside normal working hours for instance. In those circumstances you can make an arrangement with third parties, such as your partner, family members or a colleague. Tell them where you are going, what you are going to do and when you will contact them. Provide telephone numbers and names of people or organisations that should be warn if you have not made contact in time.

6.2 Working safely in a public building during service and maintenance

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties; e.g the users of the building while the work is being performed III + Use demarcation and/or barriers as well as edge and floor safeguards, if necessary, so that unauthorised persons cannot walk through the work area I 3.11
Working without supervision or with indirect supervision from your colleague(s) or the client III + Tell your colleague or client when and where you will be performing your work
+ Make fixed agreements for regular checks
II 3.10, 3.9

6.3 Working safely on locations where drug use has to be taken into consideration

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Encountering drug syringes and needles, resulting in a hazard of injury and contamination IV + Make an inspection round every morning
+ Warn the workplace management and building manager when you find drug use paraphernalia
+ If you remove the material yourself, use PPE such as safety gloves
+ Have the material disposed by an expert organisation (report the find to the police, health authority)
+ Lock the (building) site after the work has been completed
II 3.7
Infection diseases due to getting pricked by a contaminated needle III + Ensure vaccination (in consultation with the company doctor, e.g. hepatitis A, hepatitis B) I 3.9

6.4 Working safely along or on public roads

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Getting run over IV + Observe the traffic rules and keep sufficient distance. Wear safety clothes or a safety vest; always make sure your safety vest is clean
+ Stay alert, irrespective of the traffic measures
+ Always place barriers, even if the amount of work is only small
+ Place signs that are visible to all road users
+ At night, preferably use retro-reflective beaconing. Use beacons, i.e. no cones
+ Park the car as far as possible on the shoulder, but not on the cycle path
+ Caution: sometimes only specialist companies are allowed to apply and remove road markings (e.g. on motorways)
II 3.7
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties; e.g. road users while the work is being performed III + Ask the police and/or road manager for a permit or permission for the planned activities and barriers
+ Use beacons and/or barriers in accordance with the guidelines from Rijkswaterstaat, Dienst Verkeerskunde (Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management, traffic engineering department)
I 3.1
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Also consider edge safety at manholes and trenches
+ Ensure order and neatness at the workplace.
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7, 4.4

6.4 Veilig werken langs of op de openbare weg

Gevaar/blootstelling Risico-klasse Beheersmaatregel REST risico-klasse Kijk ook onder
Aangereden worden IV + Houd je aan de verkeersregels en houd voldoende afstand. Draag veiligheidskleding of een veiligheidsvest; zorg er altijd voor dat het veiligheidsvest schoon is
+ Blijf, ondanks verkeersmaatregelen, opletten
+ Plaats altijd afzettingen, ook al is het een klein werk
+ Plaats borden die voor alle verkeersdeelnemers goed zichtbaar zijn
+ Gebruik ’s nachts bij voorkeur retroreflecterende bebakeningmaterialen. Gebruik bakens en dus geen kegels
+ Parkeer het voertuig zo ver mogelijk in de berm, maar niet op het fietspad
+ Let op: soms mogen alleen gespecialiseerde bedrijven wegmarkeringen aanbrengen en verwijderen (onder andere op rijkswegen)
II 3.7
Verstoring van het verwachtingspatroon van derden; bijvoorbeeld de weggebruikers tijdens werk in uitvoering III + Vraag vergunning of toestemming van de politie en/of wegbeheerder voor de geplande werkzaamheden en afzettingen
+ Gebruik bebakening en/of wegafzetting, conform de richtlijnen van Rijkswaterstaat, Dienst Verkeerskunde
I 3.1

6.5 Working safely during the shell construction stage

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Hazard of falling; e.g. falling from heights IV + For instance, work from a safety cage suspended from a hoisting crane
+ Use markings and/or demarcations as well as border and floor safeguards, if necessary, so that colleagues cannot walk through the work area
+ Never demolish safety provisions and do not make changes to scaffolds and border fences
+ Use PPE, such as a safety belt
II 4.4, 3.7
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to leaking hoses and fittings or as a result of hot slag IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit
+ Remove flammable parts or screen them
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
+ Place the welding trolley at a safe place and place a cylinder key on the cylinder
II 4.12, 3.11, 4.16
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous sub- stances; e.g. dust particles, fibres from insulation material, quartz dust IV + Use (source) extraction and/or ventilation
+ Use PPE such as respiratory protection
+ Use (fluid tight) work gloves, a (disposable) overall preferably without pockets or collars/cuffs, and safety boots
+ When working with glass and mineral wool products you should preferably use a P-2 quality dust mask
II 3.4, 3.7, 4.7, 4.11
Material that is falling (over); e.g. because the material is poorly stacked, hoisting equipment col- lapses or the load is being manoeu- vred IV + Give attention to the logistics on the building site and the accessibility of the workplace
+ Demarcate the workplace in case of hoisting work
+ Draw up a hoisting plan in case of heavy or difficult hoisting activities
+ Use certified hoisting equipment that is in a good condition
+ Ensure proper coordination and a suitable work sequence
II 4.5
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Also consider edge safety at manholes and trenches
+ Ensure order and neatness at the workplace.
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.7, 3.2, 4.4
Physical load III + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
I 3.6, 4.5
Noise load noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous sub- stances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

6.6 Working safely during the construction stage

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Hazard of falling; e.g. falling from heights IV + For instance, work from a safety cage suspended from a hoisting crane
+ Use markings and/or barriers as well as border and floor safeguards, if necessary, so that colleagues cannot walk through the work area
+ Never demolish safety provisions and do not make changes to scaffolds and border fences
+ Use PPE, such as a safety belt
II 4.4
Contact with environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. dust particles, fibres from insulation material, quartz dust IV + Use (source) extraction and/or ventilation
+ Clean the weld surface
+ Use PPE such as respiratory protection
+ Use (fluid tight) work gloves, a (disposable) overall preferably without pockets or collars/cuffs, and safety boots
+ When working with glass and mineral wool products we recommend using a P-2 grade dust mask (FP3 minimum in the UK).
II 3.4, 3.7, 4.7, 4.11
Material that is falling (over); e.g. because the material is poorly stacked, hoisting equipment collapses or the load is being manoeuvred IV + Give attention to the logistics on the site and the accessibility of the workplace.
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Draw up a hoisting plan in case of heavy or difficult hoisting activities
+ Use certified hoisting equipment that is in a good condition
+ Ensure proper coordination and a suitable work sequence
+ Do not enter between tunnel forming elements when these have not been fastened
II 3.2, 4.5
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace.
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load, noise level ≥ 80 dB(A)) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage, e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged
II 2.5

6.7 Working safely during the final construction stage

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties; e.g the users of the building while the work is being performed III + Use markings and/or barriers, so that unauthorised persons cannot walk through the work area I 3.1
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. dust particles, fibres from insulation material, quartz dust IV + Use (source) extraction and/or ventilation
+ Clean the weld surface
+ Use PPE such as respiratory protection
+ Use (fluid tight) work gloves, a (disposable) overall preferably without pockets or collars/cuffs, and safety boots.
+ When working with glass and mineral wool products we recommend using a P-2 grade dust mask (FP3 minimum in the UK).
I 3.4, 3.7, 4.7, 4.11
Material that is falling (over); e.g. because the material is poorly stacked, hoisting equipment collapses or the load is being manoeuvred IV + Give attention to the logistics on the site and the accessibility of the workplace.
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Draw up a hoisting plan in case of heavy or difficult hoisting activities
+ Use certified hoisting equipment that is in a good condition
+ Ensure proper coordination and a suitable work sequence
+ Do not enter between tunnel forming elements when these have not been fastened
II 3.2, 4.5
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace.
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6
Noise load, noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

6.8 Working safely in the vicinity of GSM antennae

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Impact of radiation; e.g. through exposure to electromagnetic radiation from (GSM) antennae Caution: antennae of radio, police, fire brigade and amateur transmitters also transmit electromagnetic radiation III + Do not perform this work if you have a metal implant, such as metal connections, a pacemaker or a subcutaneous injection
+ Have the safe distances determined and work outside the safety circles (the higher the transmission power of the antennae the larger the safety distance)
+ If you have to work within the safety circle, have the installation switched off or reduced in power and/or contact an expert.
I 4.14
Hazard of falling; e.g. falling from heights IV + Place effective fences, these measures are always required if:
1. The hazard of falling is 2.5 metres or more.
2. You work less than 4 metres from the roof edge.
+ Clearly mark locations with hazard of falling by means of signals and only offer access to employees who have to be there to perform their job
+ Ensure walking routes and workplaces with sufficient bearing capacity for walking and for the storage of materials and tools.
+ Apply safety lines and use PPE, such as a safety belt with stop line
II 4.4
Wind load IV + Stop the work in case of a wind force of 6 BF or higher II 4.4
Electrical impact; e.g. electrocution due to the use of electrical materials and/or due to conductive wet floors and static electricity III + Prior to the start of the work, have an expert earth the components properly and measure whether there is a voltage free situation
+ Use electrically mobile, doubly insulated tools or a safety transformer or use tools with their own source of supply (battery)
I 4.3, 4.5
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace.
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5

6.9 Working safely in an enclosed space

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Being grabbed by moving components; e.g. due to the presence of agitators III + If a work permit system applies, work in accordance with the work permit
+ Switch off installation
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
I 3.1, 4.6
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to the presence of flammable gases, a concentration of oxygen that is too high (O2 ≥ 21 % by volume) and/ or vapour from solvents (e.g. in paint) IV + Have an expert establish the oxygen percentage and the fire and explosion hazard before you enter the room and have an expert monitor these aspects during the work
+ If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
+ Screen flammable sections
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
II 4.12, 3.11
Hazard of suffocation (O2 ≤ 21 % by volume); e.g. due to a chemical or biological reaction IV + Have an expert establish the oxygen percentage before you enter the room and have an expert monitor this percentage during the work
+ If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
II 3.4
Intoxication and poisoning; e.g. as a result of putrefaction or fermentation processes and welding and burning IV + Have an expert measure the presence of hazardous substances before you enter the room and have an expert monitor this hazard during the work
+ If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
+ Use (source) extraction and/or room ventilation
+ If necessary, use autonomous respiratory protection (a filter mask is not allowed due to possible shortage of oxygen)
II 3.4, 4.12
Electrical impact; e.g. electrocution due to the use of electrical materials and/or the presence of conductive walls, ceilings or floors IV + Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in an enclosed space.
+ Connect lighting only to its own power supply (battery) or a safe voltage
+ Use electrically mobile, doubly insulated tools on a safety transformer and place them outside the space or use tools with their own source of supply (battery)
+ Use approved welding tools with a voltage reducing relay and place them outside the room
II 4.6, 4.3, 4.16
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects due to limited room to move III + Suspend supply cables and ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

Note
When working in an enclosed space, a supervising manhole watch should be present directly outside the enclosed space. If necessary, he should immediately warn the persons present inside or outside the enclosed space.

6.10 Working safely in narrow spaces (crawl spaces, cellars and shafts)

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects due to limited freedom of movement III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to the presence of flammable gases and/or vapours of solvents (e.g. in paint) IV + Have an expert measure the fire and explosion hazard before entering the space
+ If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
+ Screen flammable sections
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
II 4.12, 3.11
Intoxication and poisoning; e.g. as a result of putrefaction or fermentation processes and the vapour produced during welding and burning IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
+ Have an expert measure the presence of hazardous substances before you enter the room and have an expert monitor this hazard during the work
+ Use (source) extraction and/or space ventilation
+ If necessary, use autonomous respiratory protection (a filter mask is not allowed due to possible shortage of oxygen)
II 3.4, 3.7
Electrical impact; e.g. electrocution due to the use of electrical materials and/or the presence of conductive walls, ceilings or floors III + Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted in a narrow conductive space.
+ Connect lighting only to its own power supply (battery) or a safe voltage
+ Use electrically mobile, doubly insulated tools on a safety transformer and place them outside the space or use tools with their own source of supply (battery)
+ Use approved welding tools with a voltage reducing relay
I 4.6, 4.3, 4.16
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

6.11 Working safely during renovation work

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Probability of encountering hidden asbestos applications IV + If you encounter suspect material, ask the owner or manager of the building or installation for the identity of the material. Stop the work if the identity is unknown
+ Avoid contact by keeping distance and warn the operational workplace management
+ Ask the owner or manager to analyse the material for the presence of asbestos
II 4.9
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. dust particles, hazardous (asbestos) fibres, quartz dust IV + If asbestos has been established, an expert should determine whether it should be removed
+ Once the asbestos has been removed, you may only enter the room after the expert issued a written asbestos release
+ Use (fluid tight) work gloves, a (disposable) overall preferably without pockets or collars/cuffs, and safety boots
+ When working with glass and mineral wool products you should preferably use a P-2 quality dust mask
II 4.9
Hazard of falling; e.g. falling from heights IV + For instance, work from a safety cage suspended from a hoisting crane
+ Use markings and/or barriers as well as border and floor safeguards, if necessary, so that colleagues cannot walk through the work area
+ Use markings and/or barriers as well as border and floor safeguards, if necessary, so that colleagues cannot walk through the work area
+ Use PPE, such as a safety belt
II 4.4
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to leaking hoses and fittings or as a result of hot slag IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit
+ Use approved welding equipment
+ Screen flammable sections
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
+ Place the welding trolley at a safe place and place a cylinder key on the cylinder
II 4.12, 4.16
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Voer vóór aanvang van de werkzaamheden een LMRA uit
+ Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to spillage of environmentally hazardous substances IV + Study HSE data of the product and strictly observe the instructions
+ Take the necessary precautions and ensure that residual substances are discharged. Adapt absorption material to the type of environmental pollution and the type of surface. Dispose it as chemical waste
II 3.5

6.12 Working safely in a sewer system

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to the presence of flammable sewer gas IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
+ Have an expert establish the fire and explosion hazard before you enter the room and have an expert monitor this hazard during the work
+ Screen flammable sections
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
II 4.12, 3.11
Intoxication and poisoning; e.g. as a result of putrefaction or fermentation processes and exposure to micro-organisms IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
+ Have an expert measure the presence of hazardous substances before you enter the space and have an expert monitor this hazard during the work
+ Avoid contact with (waste) products by using PPE, such as work clothes, safety (wide view) goggles and work gloves
+ Use (source) extraction and/or space ventilation
+ If necessary, use autonomous respiratory protection (a filter mask is not allowed due to possible shortage of oxygen)
II 3.4, 3.7
Being grabbed by moving components; e.g. due to the presence of agitators IV + If a work permit system applies, work in accordance with the work permit
+ Switch off installation
+ Lock out installation against unexpected reactivation by means of padlocks and use multi lock clamps
II 3.2, 4.6
Infection diseases; e.g. due to contact with waste water IV + Avoid contact as much as possible
+ Give extra attention to personal hygiene
+ Ensure vaccination (in consultation with the company doctor), e.g. against tetanus
+ Limit the number of employees and the duration of exposure
II 3.4, 3.7
Electrical impact; e.g. electrocution due to the use of electrical materials and/or the presence of conductive walls, ceilings and floors III + Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Connect lighting only to its own power supply (battery) or a safe voltage
+ Use electrically mobile, doubly insulated tools on a safety transformer or use tools with their own source of supply (battery)
+ Use approved welding tools with a voltage reducing relay
+ Place the safety transformer and/or welding transformer outside the space
I 4.6, 4.3
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects due to limited freedom of movement and slipperiness III + Suspend supply cables and ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

Note
If in case of work in an enclosed space, the observation tasks cannot be performed by technical means, a supervisor and/or manhole watch should be present.

6.13 Working safely on a site with fire and explosion hazard

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to the presence of flammable products (Also in storage tanks, sewers, garage (pits), paint workshops, wood and flour processing industry high concentrations of gas, dust or vapour may occur) IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
+ Have an expert measure the presence of hazardous substances before you enter the space and have an expert monitor this hazard during the work
+ Screen flammable sections
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
+ Use approved and explosion-proof (hand) tools
II 4.12, 3.11, 4.2
Hazard of suffocation (O2 ≤ 21 % by volume); e.g. due to a chemical or biological reaction IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
+ Have an expert establish the oxygen percentage before you enter the space and have an expert monitor this percentage during the work
II 2.4
Electrical impact; e.g. static electricity due to the outflow of gas IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit and record the measuring results.
+ Prior to the start of the work, have an expert earth the components properly and measure whether the installation is free from voltage
II 4.6

6.14 Working safely during excavation work and when working at public utility cables and pipelines (contaminated soil, encountered objects, explosives or munition)

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Damage to public utility cables and pipelines. Encountering explosives IV + Consult drawings from the cable and pipeline information centre (Kabels en Leidingen Informatie Centrum (KLIC)) and/or use detection equipment
+ Stop the work if the pipes and/or cables are indicated on the drawing, but are not found during preliminary excavation work. Report this to the owner or manager:
- In case of damage, prevent outflow by making an improvised seal using stop materials and/or by (having) the public pipeline closed. Warn the operational workplace management
- Caution: in case of an unwanted short-circuit, great forces are released, often with fire, which may result in (serious) burns and an electrocution hazard
+ If you find explosives, stop the work and do not move the explosive. Warn the Explosive Ordnance Disposal unit
II 3.2
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties; e.g. road users while the work is being performed III + Ensure a permit or permission for the planned work from the police and/or road managerden
+ Use beacons and/or barriers in accordance with the guidelines from Rijkswaterstaat, Dienst Verkeerskunde (Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management, traffic engineering department)
+ Use PPE, such as safety clothes or a safety vest
I 3.1
Intoxication and poisoning; e.g. due to escaping gases IV + Have an expert measure the presence of hazardous substances before you start the work and have an expert monitor this hazard during the work
+ If necessary, use autonomous respiratory protection (a filter mask is not sufficient)
II 3.4
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to escaping gas IV + An explosive gas mixture may be ignited. Only use explosion-proof tools II 4.12
Caving in of embankments; e.g. subsidence, collapsing, falling over and/or hazards for the structure III + Excavate under a safe angle of inclination and pump away groundwater
+ Place soil supporting structures, such as strutting, shuttering, sheet piling and their components, in a sound and safe (adequate) manner
I  
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

6.15 Working safely on flat roofs

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Hazard of falling; e.g. falling from heights IV + Place effective fences or edge safeguards, these measures are required if:
- the hazard of falling is 2.5 metres or more.
- you work less than 4 metres from the roof edge..
+ Clearly mark locations with hazard of falling by means of signals and only offer access to employees who have to be there to perform their job
+ Make sure walking routes and workplaces have sufficient bearing capacity for walking and storage of materials and tools
+ Apply safety lines and use PPE, such as a safety belt with stop line, if fencing or edge safeguards are not possible
II 4.4
Wind load IV + Stop the work in case of a wind force of 6 BF or higher II 4.4
Contact with (environmentally) hazardous substances; e.g. vapours from leaking fittings on roof of silo or storage tank IV + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit
+ If required, use PPE such as respiratory protection
II 3.4, 3.7
Electrical impact; e.g. electrocution due to the use of electrical materials and/ or the presence of conductive wet floors (you could think of silos and storage tanks) IV + Use electrically mobile, doubly insulated tools on a safety transformer or use tools with their own source of supply (battery) II 4.2, 4.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. because a storage tank contains (highly) flammable components or roof covering is flammable III + If a permit system applies, work in accordance with the permit
+ Ensure there is a fire extinguisher in the direct vicinity of the work
I 4.12
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5

Note
On roofs, collective protection is preferred over personal protective equipment. In case of activities with a limited scope and duration, it is possible to use PPE. Condition is that clear criteria have been established in the Risk Inventory and Evaluation in relation to the term ‘scope and duration’ of the activities.

6.16 Working safely on sloping roofs

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Hazard of falling; e.g. falling from heights IV + Place effective fences or other edge safeguards (e.g. scaffolds); these measures are required if the hazard of falling is 2.5 metres or more
+ Only offer access to employees who must be there to perform their jobs
+ Make sure walking routes and workplaces have sufficient bearing capacity for walking and storage of materials and tools
+ If necessary, apply safety lines and use PPE, such as a safety belt with stop line
II 4.4
Wind load IV + Stop the work in case of a wind force of 6 BF or higher II 4.4
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5

Note
On roofs, collective protection is preferred over PPE. In case of activities with a limited scope and duration, it is possible to use PPE. Condition is that clear criteria have been established in the Risk Inventory and Evaluation in relation to the term ‘scope and duration’ of the activities. The list of hazards is limited to the most important hazards.

6.17 Working safely at heights using a ladder (step ladder)

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Incorrect use IV + Check the ladder for defects
+ Consider using safer climbing equipment;
always use safer climbing equipment if:
- you are working at a height of more than 2.5 metres;
- you will be working for more than 2 hours;
- you perform work that requires great effort.
II 4.4
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties; e.g. the users of the building while the work is being performed III + Use demarcation and/or barriers as well as border and floor safeguards, if necessary, so that unauthorised persons cannot walk through the work area I 3.1
Falling over or slipping from a ladder (step ladder) IV + Place the ladder on a flat bearing surface
+ Use a stabilising bar
+ Fasten the ladder at top and bottom
II 4.4
Wind load IV + Stop the work in case of a wind force of 6 BF or higher II 4.4
Hazard of falling; e.g. falling from heights IV + Use PPE, such as a safety belt II 4.4
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Check whether the installation location is free from obstacles
+ Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid working for a long period of time (more than 2 hours) on a ladder. If work takes more than 2 hours, you should preferably use different work equipment, such as a mobile scaffold
II 3.6

6.18 Working safely at heights using a mobile scaffold

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Incorrect use IV + Check the (mobile) scaffold for defects
+ Observe the assembly instructions
+ Climb on the mobile scaffold via the frame on the inside of the mobile scaffold
II 4.4
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties; e.g the users of the building III + Use demarcation and/or barriers as well as border and floor safeguards, if necessary, so that unauthorised persons cannot walk through the work area I 3.1
Falling over of a (mobile) scaffold IV + Always make sure you assemble and move the (mobile) scaffold on a flat bearing surface
+ Use struts or extension legs if the (mobile) scaffold is more than 3 metres high or if the manufacturer prescribes this in the user instruction
II 4.4
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Check whether the floors have been placed tightly and have been secured against being whipped up by the wind, tilted or shifted
+ Check whether side boards have been placed, whether railing is still intact and whether the floor is good and easily accessible
+ Check whether the installation location is free from obstacles
+ Ensure order and neatness at the workplace; do not place stocks on the rack floor
+ Use PPE, such as a safety helmet, safety (wide view) goggles, work clothes, safety gloves and safety shoes
I 3.2, 4.4, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment (this should not be attached to the mobile scaffold))
II 3.6, 4.5

6.19 Working safely at heights using an elevating work platform

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Incorrect use II + The operator must be sufficiently instructed (certified) and must be older than 18 years of age
+ Use a certified elevating work platform.that is in a good condition
+ Check whether an instruction is available
+ Observe the instruction and perform the check
+ Only drive on flat and sufficiently sturdy surfaces
I 4.4
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties; e.g the users of the building III + Use demarcation and/or barriers as well as border and floor safeguards, if necessary, so that unauthorised persons cannot walk through the work area I 3.1
Falling over of the elevating work platform IV + Use an elevating work platform only for the applications that it is suitable for; an elevating work platform is not a hoisting crane
+ Always make sure you assemble and move the elevating work platform on a flat bearing surface
+ If the elevating work platform is provided with struts, you must use them correctly
II 4.4
Wind load IV + Stop the work in case of a wind force of 6 BF or higher II 4.4
Hazard of falling; e.g. falling from heights IV + Use PPE, such as a safety belt II 4.4, 3.7
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Check whether the installation location is free from obstacles
+ Ensure order and neatness at the workplace; do not place stocks on the floor
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
II 3.6
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

6.20 Working safely in wells and trenches

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Damage to public utility cables and pipelines. IV + Consult drawings from the cable and pipeline information centre (Kabels en Leidingen Informatie Centrum (KLIC)) and/or use detection equipment
+ When the pipe is not found during preliminary excavation work you should report this to the owner of the pipe:
- In case of damage, prevent outflow by making an improvised seal using stop materials and/or by (having) the public pipeline closed. Warn the operational workplace management.
- Caution: in case of an unwanted short-circuit, great forces are released, often accompanied with fire, which may result in (serious) burns and an electrocution hazard.
II 3.2
Disruption of the expectation pattern of third parties; e.g. road users while the work is being performed III + Ensure a permit or permission for the planned work from the police and/or road manager
+ Use beacons and/or barriers in accordance with the guidelines from Rijkswaterstaat, Dienst Verkeerskunde (Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management, traffic engineering department)
+ Use PPE, such as safety clothes or a safety vest
I 3.1, 3.7
Intoxication and poisoning; e.g. due to escaping gases IV + Have an expert monitor the presence of hazardous substances
+ If necessary, use autonomous respiratory protection (a filter mask is not sufficient)
II 3.4
Fire and explosion hazard; e.g. due to escaping gas IV + An explosive gas mixture may be ignited; only use explosion-proof tools
+ Do not smoke and do not use open fire (welding, burning and grinding) when working in the vicinity of gas pipes
II 4.12
Caving in of embankments; e.g. subsidence, collapsing, falling over and/or hazards for the structure III + Excavate under a safe angle of inclination and pump away groundwater
+ Place soil supporting structures, such as strutting, shuttering, sheet piling and their components, in a sound and safe (adequate) manner
I  
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
+ When hoisting in sewer pipes, wells and shuttering, an employee may not be within the range of the tube, well or shutter. Use a guide rope, for instance, to manoeuvre the tube, well or shutter in its location or use special tools (sewer hook)
I 3.2, 3.7, 4.5
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
+ Use an excavator as much as possible
II 3.6, 4.5
Contamination of the soil IV + Determine in advance, based on an RI&E, whether the soil may be contaminated. On the basis of this RI&E, determine whether specific measures are required, such as analysing the soil
+ Always wear your work clothes and required other PPE. Replace dirty clothes by clean clothes in time.
+ Always wash your hands before eating or smoking
II 3.7, 3.4
Persons or objects falling in a well or trench III + Place fencing and/or proper enclosures of at least 1 metre high along the well or trench. If necessary, place lighting I  

6.21 Working safely along waterways and at bridges

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Drowning after falling in water III + If possible, place edge barriers or use fall- arrest equipment
+ Make sure there is a lifebelt
+ If possible, wear an (automatic) life vest
+ Know what you have to do when a person falls in the water
I 3.7
Exposure to low temperatures III + Wear properly fitting gloves or mitts
+ Wear contact gloves in case of activities requiring fine motor skills
+ Wear special heat insulating (under)garments at low temperatures, activities with little physical exercise or if the body can cool down strongly through a combination of low temperature and hard wind
I 3.7
Onweer en bliksem II + Indien de tijdsduur tussen de lichtflits en de donder minder dan 10 seconden is, zoek dan een veilige schuilplaats; blijf niet werken op steigers, ladders of hoogwerkers in open terrein of op daken. Schuil niet onder een boom
+ Voer tijdens onweer en bliksem geen werkzaamheden uit aan elektrische installaties in de open lucht of aan toestellen die direct zijn verbonden met een dergelijke installatie
I 4.4
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace.
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5

6.22 Working safely under abnormal weather conditions

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Effect of moisture as a result of rain III + In case of bad weather, wear clothes with a hood.
There are clothes available for bad weather that will allow perspiration to escape and that will stop the rain
+ Do not continue to wear wet clothes
+ Wear work shoes or boots that are undamaged, so that your feet remain dry
I 3.7
Exposure to low temperatures III + Wear properly fitting gloves or mitts
+ Wear contact gloves in case of activities requiring fine motor skills
+ Wear special heat insulating (under)garments at low temperatures, activities with little physical exercise or if the body can cool down strongly through a combination of low temperature and hard wind
I 3.7
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace.
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7, 4.5
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13

6.23 Working safely along railways

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Being run over by a passing train or other rail-bound vehicle IV + An RI&E must be drawn up for each project. It establishes the risks and measures to prevent the hazard of collision
+ The measures must be discussed with all operational employees prior to commencement of the work
+ Observe the safety instructions from the workplace management
+ For the performance of work at ProRail sites, observing the safety instruction is obligatory. A certificate of admission is also required, which will give access to the work site during a certain period of time.
+ Do not go to sites where you do not have to be for your work
+ Wear safety clothes or a safety vest (yellow); always make sure the safety vest is clean
+ In spite of all measures, you should remain alert
II 3.7
Hazard of electrocution through contact with live overhead lines IV + If the activities have to be performed within the vicinity (within approx. 5 metres) of the overhead line, the overhead line must be switched off
+ Only authorised persons are allowed to switch off the overhead line
+ After the overhead line has been switched off and earthed and the authorised person has given permission, you may start the work
+ If necessary, an expert should continuously make sure that you do not get too close to the live overhead line
II 4.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Use tools and ensure a good work location
+ Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid lifting loads that are too heavy; e.g. use lifting equipment
II 3.6, 4.5
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors
+ Caution: use a hearing protector whereby you can still hear the safety signals (e.g. Otoplastics)
II 3.7, 4.13

6.24 Working safely in the vicinity of ventilation discharge openings

Hazard/exposure Risk-class Management measures Residual risk-class Also see under
Contact with hazardous substances; e.g. dust particles, (nitrous) gases IV + Try to find out what substances are used and which substances are eventually ventilated
+ Have the installation, extraction and/or ventilation switched off or have a safe working distance determined and work upwind
+ Use PPE, such as respiratory protection, company clothes, etc.
II 4.7, 3.7
Poisoning; e.g. because the product entered the body via the skin and/or through inhalation III + In case of doubt, contact the company doctor or general practitioner and bring the HSE information of the ventilated products. I 3.4, 4.7
Hazard of falling; e.g. falling from heights IV + Place effective fences, these measures are always required if:
1. the hazard of falling is 2.5 metres or more;
2. you work less than 4 metres from the roof edge.
+ Clearly mark locations with hazard of falling by means of signals and only offer access to employees who have to be there to perform their jobs
+ Ensure walking routes and workplaces with sufficient bearing capacity for walking and for the storage of materials and tools.
+ Apply safety lines and use PPE, such as a safety belt with stop line
II 4.4
Electrical impact; e.g. when work is performed at mechanical and electrical installations III + Personnel working at the electrical installation should have the correct competences (written instruction NEN-EN 50110/NEN 3140)
+ Working at or near live installations is not permitted.
+ At workplaces with a limited size you are only allowed to work if all risks that are present are foreseeable and manageable
I 4.6
Mechanical impact; e.g. tripping, slipping, falling, bumping, getting clamped, burning, penetration of splinters, cutting, grazing, falling objects III + Check whether the installation location is free from obstacles
+ Ensure order and neatness at the workplace
+ Perform an LMRA prior to beginning the work and take measures where necessary
+ Use PPE, such as safety helmet, work clothes, safety shoes, safety (wide view) goggles and safety gloves
I 3.2, 3.7
Physical load IV + Avoid forced (incorrect) work postures
+ Avoid working for a long period of time (more than 2 hours) on a ladder. If work takes more than 2 hours, you should preferably use different work equipment, such as a mobile scaffold
II 3.6, 4.4
Noise load; noise level ≥ 80 dB(A) IV + Use hearing protectors that provide sufficient dampening II 3.7, 4.13
Environmental damage; e.g. soil or water pollution due to leaving the filter cloths behind III + Instruct employees, immediately clear waste and make sure old filter cloths are disposed of correctly I 3.5

This is a publication by UNETO-VNI, Zoetermeer

Draft and supervision:

College Arbeidsomstandigheden UNETO-VNI: Johan Vink, VolkerWessels Telecom
Wilco van der Lugt, Van der Lugt B.V.
Ben Arkenbout, Croon Elektrotechniek B.V.
Kees Lokhorst, HOMIJ Technische Installaties B.V. Jan Maarten Cornet, HVL B.V.
Martin Mimpen, Dalkia B.V.
Marco Herman, SPIE Nederland B.V.
Mari Garcia, UNETO-VNI
Hero Boonstra, Cofely Nederland N.V.
Chris de Groot, Neon-Brabant Lichtreclame
Ed Keijzer, NUON/Vattenfall
Mimoun Elyattioui, Imtech Marine Netherlands B.V.

Editing and compilation:

Ben Arkenbout , Croon Elektrotechniek B.V.
Jan Maarten Cornet, HVL B.V.
Kees Lokhorst, HOMIJ Technische Installaties B.V. Marco Herman, SPIE Nederland B.V.

Final editing:

UNETO-VNI Media

Design and lay-out:

DoubleMatured, Leiden

Print:

Drukkerij Zoeterhage, Zoetermeer

Photography:

In cooperation with: Intersafe Groeneveld, Dordrecht Hans van Diest
Bert Mouthaan
SPIE Nederland B.V.

Illustrations and graphics:

Bruno Visser

Edition:

2013

Web versie:

VeiligWerk


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